All posts by BastionAdmin

Biblical Inerrancy: The Historical Evidence

Biblical Inerrancy: The Historical Evidence
By Norman L. Geisler

Available at Amazon only as a Kindle e-book here: 

The first edition of this book was published under the title of Decide for Yourself: How History Views the Bible by Zondervan in 1982 and republished by Wipf and Stock (2004). Print versions of the first edition can be found at Wipf and Stock here.

Biblical Inerrancy: The Historical Evidence is a revised, second edition of Decide for Yourself.

From the Preface
WHO WROTE THE BIBLE? God or men? If God inspired men to write the Bible, what did He inspire? Their thoughts? Or their words as well? How far does inspiration extend? Does it include only spiritual matters, or does it also include history and science?
The battle for the Bible has the average Christian understandably confused. Actually there is more than one battle, for there are at least six views on the nature and origin of the Bible. In using labels to identify the various views of Scripture, we must be aware that such labels are not absolute in the sense that they precisely define all those who hold to one position or another. They represent the core position of each of the various categories, but there is a divergence of view¬points within the categories, and some theologians may even hold to different elements of more than one category.

  1. Most evangelicals hold the “orthodox” view (see Chap. 5); that is, the Bible is divinely inspired in its very words, including matters of history and science. This is also the view of The International Council on Biblical Inerrancy.
  2. “Liberal” theologians (see Chap. 6), on the other hand, believe that only parts of the Bible are divine. They see great religious value in much of Scripture; but other parts are rejected as myth, and some are even consid¬ered barbaric.
  3. Some “Fundamentalists” (see Chap. 7), strongly reacting against liberals, have affirmed that the Bible was ver¬bally dictated by God word-for-word.
  4. “Neo-orthodoxy” (see Chap. 8), another reaction to liberalism but without returning to a fully orthodox view of Scripture, holds that the Bible is not a revelation from God. Rather, it is a fallible human record of the revelation God gave in His past actions. That is, God does not reveal Himself in words but only in events.
  5. “Liberal-Evangelicals” (see Chap. 9) believe that the Bible is wholly human in origin, replete with historical, scientific, and religious errors. They believe God takes these human words and “elevates” them to be a vehicle of His word.
  6. Much of the contemporary debate is between the orthodox or evangelical Christians and the “Neo-evangelicals” (see Chap. 10). The latter believe that the Bible is infallible but not inerrant; that is, the Bible speaks with divine authority and complete truthfulness on salvation matters but is not inerrant (without error) in historical and scientific matters.
    This book was written for those who do not have ready access to the writings of the main teachers in the church for the past nearly two centuries. As will be seen, their citations support the Orthodox view of the church down through the centuries up to modern times. The other views deviate from the orthodox view because of their acceptance to one or more modern philosophical influences.


CHAPTER 1: A Biblical View of Inspiration. 9
The Old Testament. 9
The New Testament. 12
CHAPTER 2: The Patristic View of the Bible. 17
Clement of Rome (A. D. 30—100). 17
Justin Martyr (A. D. 100—165). 17
Irenaeus (Second Century A. D.). 19
Tertullian (A. D. 160—220). 20
Origen (A. D. 184/185—254/254). 21
Clement Of Alexandria (A.D. 150—215). 24
CHAPTER 3: The Medieval View of Inspiration. 27
Augustine (A. D. 354—430). 27
Thomas Aquinas (A. D. 1225—1274). 31
CHAPTER 4: The Reformation View of Inspiration. 33
Martin Luther (A. D. 1483—1546). 33
John Calvin (A. D. 1509—1564). 38
CHAPTER 5: The Post-Reformation Orthodox View of Inspiration. 41
Post-Reformation Orthodox View.. 41
CHAPTER 6: Liberal Views of Inspiration. 47
Harold Dewolf (1905—1986). 47
Harry Emerson Fosdick (1878—1969). 51
Process Theology and the Bible. 56
CHAPTER 7: A Fundamentalist View of Inspiration. 58
CHAPTER 8: The Neo-orthodox View of Inspiration. 64
Karl Barth (1886—1968). 64
Emil Brunner (1889—1966). 67
CHAPTER 9: A Liberal-Evangelical View of the Bible. 75
CHAPTER 10: The Neo-evangelical View of Inspiration. 85
Gerrit C. Berkouwer (1903—1996). 85
Jack B. Rogers (1934–). 91

Biblical Errancy: An Analysis of its Philosophical Roots

Biblical Errancy An Analysis of its Philosophical Roots
Revised, Second Edition
Edited by Norman L. Geisler

Available at Amazon as a Kindle e-book here: 

This second edition has slightly a slightly updated prologue, slightly updated epilogue, and has one new chapter (Chapter 9 on Process Theology, Whitehead, Ogden, and others).

The first edition of this book was published by Zondervan in 1981 and again by Wipf and Stock in 2004. Print versions of the first edition may still be available at Wipf and Stock here:

Ch. 2 Gary R. Habermas, Ph.D. – SKEPTICISM: DAVID HUME. 21
Ch. 3 David Beck, Ph.D. – AGNOSTICISM: IMMANUEL KANT. 48
Ch. 4 Winfried Corduan, Ph.D. – TRANSCENDENTALISM: GEORG W. F. HEGEL. 77
Ch. 6 Terry L. Miethe, Ph.D. – ATHEISM: FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE. 127
Ch. 8 Howard M. Ducharme, Jr., Ph.D. – MYSTICISM: MARTIN HEIDEGGER.. 195
EPILOGUE – p.252
NOTES – p. 263-300

Knowing the Truth About Creation

Knowing the Truth about Creation
How it Happened and What it Means for Us
Revised, Second Edition
by Norman L. Geisler

Available at Amazon in 2019

Printed versions of the first edition (1989) may be purchased through

Table of Contents

Preface. 5
PART ONE – What the Bible Tells Us about Creation. 8
Chapter 1 | God and Creation. 8
Chapter 2 | Material Creation: Man and the Cosmos. 23
Chapter 3 | Spiritual Creation: The Angels and Heaven. 31
PART TWO | What Philosophy and Science Tell us About Creation. 38
Chapter 4 | The Three Philosophical Views of Creation. 38
Chapter 5 |The Philosophical Arguments for Creation. 53
Chapter 6 | Science and Creation. 64
PART THREE | The Moral and Spiritual Implications of Creation. 85
Chapter 7 | Respect for Creation. 85
Chapter 8 | Reverence for the Creator. 98
Appendix 1 | Biblical References to Creation. 107
Appendix 2 | The Four Basic Views on Creation. 108
Chapter Notes. 111
Index. 125
Bibliography. 129
More Information 135

Explaining Biblical Inerrancy

Explaining Biblical Inerrancy
Official Commentary on the ICBI Statements
by Dr. R. C. Sproul and Norman L. Geisler

This is available on Amazon only as a Kindle e-book and is also available here on this page as a .PDF and as a .EPUB e-book. It is not available in printed form at this time. 

This 116-page PDF e-book contains the articles of affirmation and denial from the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy (1978), the articles of affirmation and denial from the Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics (1982), the commentary on the first statement by Dr. R.C. Sproul (Explaining Inerrancy, 1980), and the commentary on the second statement by Dr. Norman Geisler (Explaining Hermeneutics, 1983). Explaining Inerrancy and Explaining Hermeneutics were two official booklets published by the ICBI Council to help explain the meaning of the first two Chicago statements.

The PDF version of the e-book may be downloaded for free here.

The .ePub version of the e-book may be downloaded for free here [link forthcoming soon].


Introduction. 6

The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy: Articles of Affirmation and Denial (1978) 15

The Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics: Articles of Affirmation and Denial (1982) 18

Explaining Inerrancy: A Commentary on the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy. 22
Foreword by Roger R. Nicole. 22
The Word of God and Authority. 24
ARTICLE I: Authority. 25
ARTICLE II: Scripture and Tradition. 27
The Word of God and Revelation. 28
ARTICLE III: Revelation. 29
ARTICLE IV: Human Language. 30
ARTICLE V: Progressive Revelation. 32
The Word of God and Inspiration. 33
ARTICLE VI: Verbal Plenary Inspiration. 34
ARTICLE VII: Inspiration. 36
ARTICLE VIII: Human Authors. 37
The Word of God and Inerrancy. 38
ARTICLE IX: Inerrancy. 39
ARTICLE X: The Autographs. 41
ARTICLE XI: Infallibility. 43
ARTICLE XII: Inerrancy of the Whole. 44
The Word of God and Truth. 46
ARTICLE XIV: Consistency. 51
ARTICLE XV: Accommodation. 53
The Word of God and You. 55
ARTICLE XVI: Church History. 56
ARTICLE XVII: Witness of the Spirit 57
ARTICLE XVIII: Interpretation. 58
ARTICLE XIX: Health of the Church. 60

Explaining Hermeneutics: A Commentary on the Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics. 62
ARTICLE I: Authority of the Scriptures. 62
ARTICLE II: The Written Word And the Incarnated Word. 63
ARTICLE III: The Centrality of Jesus Christ 64
ARTICLE IV: The Role of the Holy Spirit in Revelation. 65
ARTICLE V: The Role of the Holy Spirit in Application. 65
ARTICLE VI: Propositional Truth Corresponds to Realty. 66
ARTICLE VII: One Meaning, Multiple Applications. 67
ARTICLE VIII: Cultural Universality. 68
ARTICLE IX: Hermeneutics and Meaning. 69
ARTICLE X: Adequacy of Variety of Literary Forms. 70
ARTICLE XI: Adequacy of Translation. 71
ARTICLE XII: Limits for Functional Equivalence Translation. 72
ARTICLE XIII: The Value and Limits of Genre Criticism.. 73
ARTICLE XIV: Literary Forms and Factual History. 74
ARTICLE XV: The Grammatical-Historical Sense. 75
ARTICLE XVI: Roles and Varieties of Biblical Criticism.. 76
ARTICLE XVII: Scripture is Self-Interpreting. 77
ARTICLE XVIII: Meaning may Transcend Human Understanding. 78
ARTICLE XIX: Danger in Preunderstandings. 79
ARTICLE XX: Extrabiblical Sources. 80
ARTICLE XXI: Harmony of General and Special Revelations. 81
ARTICLE XXII: Genesis 1-11 as Factual 82
ARTICLE XXIII: Perspicacity of the Scriptures. 83
ARTICLE XXIV: The Value of Biblical Scholarship. 83
ARTICLE XXV: Preaching as Exposition of Scriptural Texts 84
Appendix I: Short Exposition of CSBI 85
Appendix II: Short Exposition of CSBH 87
Appendix III: The CSBA (Chicago Statement on Biblical Application) 98

What Augustine Says

What Augustine Says, Revised, Second Edition
Norman Geisler

Also, the first edition of this book (1982) can be purchased as a printed book from Wipf and Stock at: 


Preface. 11
Sourcs and Abbreviations. 12
Chapter 1: Faith and Reason. 13
I. Reason initially precedes faith. 13
A. Reason helps one judge whether authority is credible. 13
B. Reason precedes faith in reality, not in time. 14
C. Reason tells us that it is reasonable to believe what we cannot ascertain by reason. 14
D. Reason helps us understand the contents of what is to be believed. 15
E. Reason helps us to believe what we cannot see. 15
F. Reason removes objections to belief. 15
G. Reason persuaded by evidence can call one to faith. 16
II. Faith precedes full understanding. 16
A. Faith logically precedes understanding. 16
B. Faith logically proceeds toward understanding. 17
III. Faith rewards reason with clear understanding. 18
A. Faith overcomes deception, the result of sin. 18
B. Only faith can overcome deception. 19
IV. Reason is adequate to demonstrate God’s existence. 20
A. The existence of God can be proven by reason. 20
B. All truth is God’s truth. 23
C. Plato would be a Christian today. 24
D. Reason is inherently more excellent than faith. 24
V. Reason confirms faith with evidence. 25
A. Faith is confirmed through historical miracles. 25
B. with is confirmed through fulfilled prophecy. 28
C. with is confirmed through the conversion of pagans. 29
D. Faith is confirmed through the nature of the Bible. 29
VI. Faith is more profound than reason. 30
A. Faith and reason are distinguishable. 30
B. Faith transcends reason. 30
VII. Faith and reason complement each other. 31
A. Faith and reason are separate sources of truth. 31
B. Faith and reason never contradict 31
VIII. Faith and reason can be used to show truth in an extraordinary manner. 32
Chapter 2: The Bible. 33
I. The Inspiration of the Bible. 33
II. The Authority of the Bible. 36
III. The Inerrancy of the Bible. 39
A. The Bible does not contradict itself. 39
B. The Bible contains no errors. 40
C. The Bible refutes the claims of higher criticism.. 44
IV. The Canonicity of the Bible. 46
A. The Extent of the canon. 46
B. The Closing of the canon. 47
C. The Principles of Canonicity. 48
D. Augustine’s mistaken views on the canon. 49
E. Augustine’s inconsistency on the canon. 50
Chapter 3: God’s Attributes. 51
I. God’s nature. 51
A. Aseity. 51
B. Immutability. 53
C. Indivisibility. 57
D. Omnipresence. 58
E. Omnipotence. 59
F. Immateriality. 59
G. Eternality. 60
II. God’s relation to time. 61
A. The nature of time. 61
B. The relation of time and the act of creation. 66
C. God’s knowledge of time. 71
D. God’s will and time. 73
E. God’s acts and time. 73
Chapter Four: Christ. 75
I. Humanity: Christ as man. 75
A. Christ’s human nature was full and complete. 75
B. Christ’s human nature was necessary for our salvation. 80
C. Christ as man is the second Adam. 82
D. Christ as man necessitates the resurrection of the dead. 83
E. Christ as man judges man on the basis of His humanity. 83
II. Deity: Christ as God. 83
A. Christ’s divine nature is full and complete. 83
B. Christ as God is inseparable from the Father. 86
C. Christ’s actions are as God’s. 89
D. Christ as God is the Mediator for men with God. 91
III. Humanity and Deity: Christ as God and man united in one person. 92
A. Christ incarnate is simultaneously human and divine. 92
B. Christ has both “form of God” and “form of servant.”. 93
C. Christ as the Word (logos) is begotten of the Father. 97
D. Christ as man and God exists in both time and eternity (see also 240-242, 259-261). 99
Chapter 5: Human Beings. 101
I. The creation, of human beings. 101
A. Human beings were created by God. 101
B. Humans are made in God’s image. 103
C. God has created man to have dominion over the animals. 106
D. Whether the soul is originated through creation or by propagation is yet to be decided. 106
E. Humans are meant to be in subjection to God. 108
F. Human happiness depends on God. 108
II. The nature of human beings. 109
A. Humans are a composite being: soul and body. 109
B. Man possesses a material part: the body. 109
C. Man possesses immaterial parts. 113
D. Material and immaterial are related. 118
E. Human nature is good in itself (see also chapter 8, Evil). 122
F. Human nature has been corrupted by evil (see also 602-611). 123
III. The fall of the Human Race (see also 496-510). 124
A. The whole human race was involved in original sin. 124
B. Humans are born in sin. 125
C. Original sin brought condemnation on the entire race. 125
D. The whole human race was corrupted by original sin. 126
E. The human race is wholly corrupted by sin. 127
F. Original sin resulted in death. 127
G. The soul lost its mastery over the body. 128
Chapter 6: Salvation. 129
I. God and salvation. 129
A. The order of God’s decrees. 129
B. Predestination. 131
C. Election. 134
II. Christ and salvation. 137
A. Christ: the basis of true universal faith. 137
B. The extent of Christ’s atonement 137
C. The nature of Christ’s atonement: penal substitution. 139
D. The effects of Christ’s atonement 143
E. Christ as priest-mediator. 148
F. The necessity of Christ’s incarnation for His death. 150
III. The Holy Spirit and salvation. 152
A. God’s Holy Spirit is the effectual agent in the effectual call. 152
B. God’s Holy Spirit is the continuous witness of God’s love for man. 154
IV. God’s revelation and salvation. 155
A. Creation is a witness to the creator. 155
B. Scripture is a witness to the Saviour. 155
V. The witness and help of others in salvation. 158
A. The benefits of the prayers and witness of others. 158
B. The relation of works and salvation. 159
C. Relation of baptism and forgiveness of sins. 160
Chapter 7: Free Will and Grace. 163
I. The nature of free will. 163
A. Free will is first defined. 163
B. Free will is a created good. 163
C. Free will implies the ability to do evil. 163
D. Free will entails moral responsibility. 164
E. Free will involves the power not to sin. 164
F. Free will involves the power to believe or not believe. 164
G. Free will allows one to perform free acts. 165
II. Free will and the fall. 168
A. Sin arises when the will chooses a lower good (see 625). 168
B. Human beings fell voluntarily, without compulsion. 169
C. Fallen humans have lost the freedom to do good without God’s help. 170
D. Fallen persons retain free will to do evil. 171
E. Fallen persons retain freedom to accept God’s grace. 172
III. The need for grace to aid free will. 173
A. All evil comes from an evil will. 173
B. Grace is needed to overcome an evil will. 173
C. Only the redeemed are truly free. 174
D. Grace is needed to keep God’s laws. 175
E. Grace is needed to perform any good act. 176
E. Even faith is a gift of God. 176
G. But God’s gifts are received by free choice. 177
H. However, there is no merit in our free will. 180
IV. The nature and function of grace with free will. 181
V. Some problems in human understanding of grace and free will. 182
C. Does God desire all men to be saved?. 183
E. Is God’s saving grace resistible?. 185
F. Is God’s saving grace compulsive?. 187
G. Why is it just to save only some?. 189
H. Is it fair to condemn infants who have made no free choice?. 190
Chapter 8: Evil. 193
I. Every substance as such is good. 193
A. All of God’s Creation is Good. 193
B. There is no evil substance (see 602-604). 194
C. All who depart from goodness show they were created good. 195
D. No departures from goodness are from God. 195
II. The Supreme Good is Incorruptible. 196
A. Created Good Results From a Good Creator. 196
B. The Supreme Good is Eternal and Incorruptible. 196
C. The Supreme Good is Separate From Corruptible Substance. 197
III. Only created Goods are Corruptible. 198
A. All substance is created by God. 198
B. Created goods are corruptible because they are mutable. 198
C. Created goods differ in degree. 199
D. Corruption results from abandoning untreated good. 199
IV. Evil is not a Substance. 200
A. Evil tends toward nonexistence. 200
B. Evil has no positive nature. 200
C. All created substance is good. 200
V. Evil is a Corruption of Substance. 201
A. Evil is defined as “corruption.”. 201
B. Evil as corruption is contrary to nature. 201
C. Corruption is the result of sin. 202
D. The source of this sin is the will (see also 618-628). 202
VI. Evil is not caused by God. 203
A. God is incorruptible, therefore He cannot cause corruption. 203
B. God did not cause the first evil will. 203
C. God cannot be the cause of evil. 204
D. God is not to be blamed for the creature’s faults. 204
E. God permits evil so that we will desire the future blessed life. 204
VII. The Abuse of Freedom is the Cause of Evil. 205
A. Evil came through freedom (see 473-500). 205
B. Evil is freely turning from the infinite good to the lesser good (see 601). 205
C. Pride is the beginning of evil. 207
D. Man’s misuse of freedom is possible due to his being made out of nothing. 207
E. All men are affected by the first parents’ turn from good (see 373-385). 207
VIII. Evil Never Completely Corrupts Good. 208
A. Every damaged nature was originally good. 208
B. Evil is defect in created good. 208
C. Evil is never total. 208
IX. Evil is Part of a Total Picture of Good. 209
A. God foresaw but permitted evil. 209
B. It was good for God to permit evil. 210
C. God accomplishes a greater good by permitting evil. 210
Chapter 9: Ethics 213
I. The Love Ethic. 213
A. Supreme love. 213
B. The love of God. 213
C. The love of self. 214
D. Love and virtues. 215
E. Virtue and Christianity. 218
F. Virtue, a precondition of truth. 218
II. Ethical Dilemmas. 218
A. General Conflicts. 218
B. Special Cases. 220
III. Specific Ethical Issues. 221
A. War. 221
B. Suicide. 222
C. Lying. 222
D. Rape. 224
E. Sex. 224
F. Nudity. 225
G. Gluttony. 225
H. Ethics and Progressive Revelation. 226
Appendix One: Early and Late Augustine on Free Will and Grace. 228
Key Influences on Augustine’s Change of View on Free Will and Grace. 228
Some Contrasts between the Early and Later View of Augustine on Grace and Free Will 228
Key Books Involved in the Early and Late View on Grace and Free Will 229

Popular Survey of Biblical Doctrine

A Popular Survey of Bible Doctrine
by Norman L. Geisler
and Douglas E. Potter

This e-book is a condensed version of Dr. Geisler’s much larger Systematic Theology volume(s). 


Introduction. 5
1 | Before we Study. 6
2 | Inspiration of the Bible. 16
3 | The Nature of God. 29
4 | Creation. 41
5 | Jesus Christ 52
6 | The Holy Spirit 66
7 | Angels. 75
8 | Satan and Demons. 81
9 | The Nature of Man. 90
10 | Sin. 103
11 | The Salvation of Man ~ Part 1. 114
12 | The Salvation of Man ~ Part 2. 128
13 | The Church. 144
14 | Last Things ~ Part 1. 158
Bibliography. 188

The Religion of the Force

The Religion of the Force
Revised, Second Edition
by Richard G. Howe
and Norman L. Geisler

Preface ……………………………………………………………… 5
1 | The Star Wars Phenomenon ……………………………. 8
2 | Is There a Religion of the Force? …………………… 12
3 | What is George Lucas’s Religion? …………………. 26
4 | Star Wars and Christianity ……………………………. 31
5 | What is the Source of the Force? …………………… 55
6 | What is the Gospel According to Lucas? ………… 62
7 | What Makes the Difference? …………………………. 66
8 | What Difference Does it Make? …………………….. 74
About the Authors ……………………………………………. 79
How to Know God …………………………………………… 80
Notes ……………………………………………………………… 96

Additional search keywords: Star Wars

Should Believers Make Ashes of Themselves?

Should Believers Make Ashes of Themselves? Cremation: The Burning Question
by Dr. Norman L. Geisler

This should be available at Amazon in 2019. 


Traditionally Christians, Orthodox Jews, and Muslims have practiced burial and not cremation. But the tide is turning, at least for Christians. Is this good or bad? What does burial symbolize? Is Cremation a Christian symbol?

Cremation is on the Increase in the US
In 1975 the number of US cremations was less than 10%. Today it is over 40%. Within a decade it is projected to be over 50%. Cremation varies from state to state. In some states it rises to 70%, and in others it is only 10%. Likewise, in some countries like Japan the cremation rate is 95%, while in other countries like Poland (largely Catholic) it is only 10%.
Views on cremation vary among religions. Buddhism and Hinduism require it, whereas, the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) have traditionally disapproved it. It is allowed by many other groups, such as Shinto, Reformed Judaism, Christian Science, Unitarians, Methodists, Episcopalians, and others.
Many arguments, pro and con, have been offered on the topic of cremation. First, we will examine the reasons generally given in favor of it (chap. 2). Then, we will offer a brief response to them by opponents (chap. 3). Following that, we will look at the reasons often offered for burial rather than burning the dead (chap. 4). Finally, we will attempt to answer some tough questions relating to the practice of burial of the dead (chap. 5).

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: What is Cremation?. 5
Chapter 2: Reasons Given in Favor of Cremation. 8
Chapter 3: Responses Given to Arguments for Cremation. 12
Chapter 4: Reasons in Favor of Burial 17
Chapter 5: Answering Tough Questions. 25
Appendix 1: Responding to Alleged Biblical Examples of Cremation. 28

Should Old Aquinas be Forgot?

Should Old Aquinas be Forgot?
Why Many Evangelicals Say No
Revised, Second Edition
by Dr. Norman L. Geisler

The first edition of this book was published under the title of Thomas Aquinas: An Evangelical Appraisal in 1991 by Baker Book House (ISBN: 978-0801038440) and republished in 2003 with the same title by Wipf & Stock Publishers (ISBN: 978-1592441549). Printed versions (softcover) of the 2003 unrevised edition may be purchased from

This 2013 version is a light but complete revision of all chapters accomplished by Dr. Geisler in 2013. Most importantly this version adds two completely new chapters—one on evil and one on the origin, nature, and destiny of human beings. In addition, it updates the bibliography with some of the most important recent works by and on Aquinas. This is still the only complete work on Aquinas by an evangelical Scholar available in print today.

Forward. 5
Chap. 1: The Contemporary Relevance of Aquinas. 7
Chap. 2: The Life of Aquinas. 19
Chap. 3: An Overview of the Thought of Aquinas. 30
Chap. 4: The Bible. 36
Chap. 5: Faith and Reason. 49
Chap. 6: The First Principles of Knowledge. 63
Chap. 7: Reality. 83
Chap. 8: God’s Nature. 94
Chap. 9: God’s Existence. 111
Chap. 10: Human Nature. 129
Chap. 11: Religious Language. 146
Chap. 12: Evil 159
Chap. 13: Law and Morality. 177
Epilogue. 190
End Notes. 191
Select Bibliography. 219
APppendix 1: The Major Writings of Aquinas. 221
Appendix 2: A Chronology of Aquinas’ Life. 222
Appendix 3: God, Angels, and Humans. 223
Index of Subjects and Persons. 224