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A Handbook on Worldviews

A Handbook on World Views: A Catalogue for World View Shoppers


By Norman L. Geisler and William D. Watkins

Available as a Kindle e-book at Amazon here:

This book is an updated (third edition) version of the book formerly titled Worlds Apart: A Handbook on World Views; Second Edition, which is still available as a soft-cover printedbook from Wipf&Stock here: https://wipfandstock.com/worlds-apart.html


Biblical Inerrancy: The Historical Evidence

Biblical Inerrancy: The Historical Evidence
By Norman L. Geisler

Available at Amazon only as a Kindle e-book here: 

The first edition of this book was published under the title of Decide for Yourself: How History Views the Bible by Zondervan in 1982 and republished by Wipf and Stock (2004). Print versions of the first edition can be found at Wipf and Stock here.

Biblical Inerrancy: The Historical Evidence is a revised, second edition of Decide for Yourself.

From the Preface
WHO WROTE THE BIBLE? God or men? If God inspired men to write the Bible, what did He inspire? Their thoughts? Or their words as well? How far does inspiration extend? Does it include only spiritual matters, or does it also include history and science?
The battle for the Bible has the average Christian understandably confused. Actually there is more than one battle, for there are at least six views on the nature and origin of the Bible. In using labels to identify the various views of Scripture, we must be aware that such labels are not absolute in the sense that they precisely define all those who hold to one position or another. They represent the core position of each of the various categories, but there is a divergence of view¬points within the categories, and some theologians may even hold to different elements of more than one category.

  1. Most evangelicals hold the “orthodox” view (see Chap. 5); that is, the Bible is divinely inspired in its very words, including matters of history and science. This is also the view of The International Council on Biblical Inerrancy.
  2. “Liberal” theologians (see Chap. 6), on the other hand, believe that only parts of the Bible are divine. They see great religious value in much of Scripture; but other parts are rejected as myth, and some are even consid¬ered barbaric.
  3. Some “Fundamentalists” (see Chap. 7), strongly reacting against liberals, have affirmed that the Bible was ver¬bally dictated by God word-for-word.
  4. “Neo-orthodoxy” (see Chap. 8), another reaction to liberalism but without returning to a fully orthodox view of Scripture, holds that the Bible is not a revelation from God. Rather, it is a fallible human record of the revelation God gave in His past actions. That is, God does not reveal Himself in words but only in events.
  5. “Liberal-Evangelicals” (see Chap. 9) believe that the Bible is wholly human in origin, replete with historical, scientific, and religious errors. They believe God takes these human words and “elevates” them to be a vehicle of His word.
  6. Much of the contemporary debate is between the orthodox or evangelical Christians and the “Neo-evangelicals” (see Chap. 10). The latter believe that the Bible is infallible but not inerrant; that is, the Bible speaks with divine authority and complete truthfulness on salvation matters but is not inerrant (without error) in historical and scientific matters.
    This book was written for those who do not have ready access to the writings of the main teachers in the church for the past nearly two centuries. As will be seen, their citations support the Orthodox view of the church down through the centuries up to modern times. The other views deviate from the orthodox view because of their acceptance to one or more modern philosophical influences.


CHAPTER 1: A Biblical View of Inspiration. 9
The Old Testament. 9
The New Testament. 12
CHAPTER 2: The Patristic View of the Bible. 17
Clement of Rome (A. D. 30—100). 17
Justin Martyr (A. D. 100—165). 17
Irenaeus (Second Century A. D.). 19
Tertullian (A. D. 160—220). 20
Origen (A. D. 184/185—254/254). 21
Clement Of Alexandria (A.D. 150—215). 24
CHAPTER 3: The Medieval View of Inspiration. 27
Augustine (A. D. 354—430). 27
Thomas Aquinas (A. D. 1225—1274). 31
CHAPTER 4: The Reformation View of Inspiration. 33
Martin Luther (A. D. 1483—1546). 33
John Calvin (A. D. 1509—1564). 38
CHAPTER 5: The Post-Reformation Orthodox View of Inspiration. 41
Post-Reformation Orthodox View.. 41
CHAPTER 6: Liberal Views of Inspiration. 47
Harold Dewolf (1905—1986). 47
Harry Emerson Fosdick (1878—1969). 51
Process Theology and the Bible. 56
CHAPTER 7: A Fundamentalist View of Inspiration. 58
CHAPTER 8: The Neo-orthodox View of Inspiration. 64
Karl Barth (1886—1968). 64
Emil Brunner (1889—1966). 67
CHAPTER 9: A Liberal-Evangelical View of the Bible. 75
CHAPTER 10: The Neo-evangelical View of Inspiration. 85
Gerrit C. Berkouwer (1903—1996). 85
Jack B. Rogers (1934–). 91

Biblical Errancy: An Analysis of its Philosophical Roots

Biblical Errancy An Analysis of its Philosophical Roots
Revised, Second Edition
Edited by Norman L. Geisler

Available at Amazon as a Kindle e-book here: 

This second edition has slightly a slightly updated prologue, slightly updated epilogue, and has one new chapter (Chapter 9 on Process Theology, Whitehead, Ogden, and others).

The first edition of this book was published by Zondervan in 1981 and again by Wipf and Stock in 2004. Print versions of the first edition may still be available at Wipf and Stock here: https://wipfandstock.com/biblical-errancy.html

Ch. 2 Gary R. Habermas, Ph.D. – SKEPTICISM: DAVID HUME. 21
Ch. 3 David Beck, Ph.D. – AGNOSTICISM: IMMANUEL KANT. 48
Ch. 4 Winfried Corduan, Ph.D. – TRANSCENDENTALISM: GEORG W. F. HEGEL. 77
Ch. 6 Terry L. Miethe, Ph.D. – ATHEISM: FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE. 127
Ch. 8 Howard M. Ducharme, Jr., Ph.D. – MYSTICISM: MARTIN HEIDEGGER.. 195
EPILOGUE – p.252
NOTES – p. 263-300

Should Old Aquinas be Forgot?

Should Old Aquinas be Forgot?
Why Many Evangelicals Say No
by Norman L. Geisler

There are two editions of this book that are available now and there is a third edition that should be ready in late 2020 or early 2021.

The first edition, titled Thomas Aquinas: An Evangelical Appraisal, is still available as a softcover book from Wipf&Stock here and as an e-book in the Logos system here. It was first published in 1991 by Baker Book House (ISBN: 978-0801038440) and then republished in 2003 under the same title by Wipf & Stock Publishers (ISBN: 978-1592441549). Other than a change in cover art, no changes were made between these two releases.

The second edition of the book was released in 2013 after Norm. Norm decided to inject a bit of word-play humor into it by changing the title to Should Old Aquinas be Forgotten? All of the chapters in this book received some light revision by Norm in 2012. It also two completely new chapters—one on evil and one on the origin, nature, and destiny of human beings. In addition, it updates the bibliography with some of the most important recent works by and on Aquinas. It remains the only complete work on Aquinas by an evangelical Scholar available in print today. Unfortunately, the publishing of this second version was rather lackluster and haphazard. It is begging to be re-edited and republished. It is readable as it is, however. So if you’re okay with reading it on a kindle reader, and don’t mind some formatting issues and typos, the Amazon link for it is below:

Second edition – Kindle e-book only – Readable but needs to be reformatted and republished

As of May 2020, the third edition is almost ready for publishing as a high-quality paperback and a well-formatted Kindle e-book. When? Hopefully in late 2020 or early 2021. Norm’s two new chapters from the second edition will be included of course. Also there will be three new appendices added to the back, taken from Norm’s other writings. One of the appendices will be “Directions in Neo-Thomism!” Expect further updates later in 2020 here at http://bastionbooks.com/aquinas/. (Since Norm passed away in July 2020, BastionBooks.com is still sort of in limbo.)




1: The Contemporary Relevance of Aquinas.
2: The Life of Aquinas.
3: An Overview of the Thought of Aquinas
4: The Bible
5: Faith and Reason
6: The First Principles of Knowledge
7: Reality
8: God’s Nature
9: God’s Existence
10: Human Nature
11: Religious Language
12: Evil
13: Law and Morality

End Notes
Select Bibliography


1: The Major Writings of Aquinas
2: A Chronology of Aquinas’s Life
3: God, Angels, and Humans
4: Christian History Interview with Norm Geisler about Thomas Aquinas
5: Does Thomism lead to Roman Catholicism?
6: Directions in Neo-Thomism

Praise for the book

“This is ‘must reading’ for every thinking Christian. I am thrilled by this careful analysis of St. Thomas.”

R.C. Sproul, Emeritus Professor of Theology, Reformed Theological Seminary

“The book gives an understandable presentation of many of Aquinas’ major contributions and shows how they are relevant, at times even crucial, to contemporary discussion. In the process Geisler strikes a credible blow against the current unfounded prejudice towards S. Thomas in evangelical thought.”

Winfried Corduan,Professor Emeritus of Philosophy and Religion, Taylor University

“Dr. Geisler is a man I have known and admired for many years. It is indeed the rare man who can find in an apparent enemy an ally. But Geisler’s study of Thomas Aquinas is far more than an instance of the old adage fas est et ab hoste doceri (it is right to learn even from the foe). He enables evangelicals and Catholics to see the immense range of truths that unite us, not as some least common denominator, but truths that are at the heart of our Christian faith.”

Ralph McInerny, Professor of Philosophy, University of Notre Dame

“Dr. Geisler has hit a grand slam with Thomas Aquinas. This volume makes accessible the many Thomistic nuggets to the evangelical world. Whether you’re a theologian or lay person, this clear and understandable work offers crucial ideas for understanding the Bible, God, creation, reality, the relationship between faith and reason, and much more. This must-read book is an indispensable resource for any thinking Christian’s toolkit. Take and read!” 

Joseph M. Holden, President, Veritas International University

“Geisler makes a good case for his message that the writings of Aquinas can be of great value to today’s Protestant and Roman Catholic philosophers and theologians.”

Robert N. Campbell, Aquinas Scholar

“Paul tells us in Rom. 1:20 that the invisible attributes of God ‘are clearly seen through the things that are made.’ He echoes the Psalmist who tells us that ‘the heavens declare the glory of God’ (Ps. 19:1). No philosopher in history has done a better job of unpacking the philosophical richness of Paul’s and the Psalmist’s proclamations than Thomas Aquinas. Evangelicals who ignore Aquinas’s thinking here and in other areas are doing themselves a great disservice. There is no better place to begin appreciating his philosophy than Dr. Norman Geisler’s excellent book. It should be in the library of every thoughtful Christian.”

Richard G. Howe, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy and Apologetics, Southern Evangelical Seminary

“Thomas Aquinas is arguably the greatest mind Christendom has ever produced. Yet many Christians are unfamiliar with his life and extraordinary accomplishments. Norman Geisler has done a great service for evangelical Protestants by providing them with a general introduction to St. Thomas’s life and system of thought. Old Aquinas has indeed much wisdom to teach all branches of Christendom.”

Kenneth Samples, Senior Research Scholar, Reasons to Believe

“Some may be surprised that a well-known Christian leader, such as Norman Geisler, would propose greater evangelical appreciation of Thomas Aquinas.  But, in fact, reading Aquinas will enrich the evangelical Christian’s theology, philosophy, and apologetics. In this book, Geisler seeks to give a basic explanation of the untapped riches of Thomistic theology and philosophy to the evangelical and to whoever is open to learning it. For this reason, I recommend this book as a beginner’s guide to those who are interested in learning from Aquinas but whose hearts falter at the prospect of having to learn the medieval scholastic literary method.” 

Miguel Angel Endara, Professor of Philosophy and Apologetics, Veritas International University

“Should Old Aquinas Be Forgot? is an astute introduction to the philosophical thought of Aquinas for evangelical thinkers.  The list of topics are extensive: faith and reason, religious language, Aquinas on the Bible, reasoning for God’s existence and nature, natural law, the human person.  Its abundant citations acquaint the reader with Aquinas himself and open the door to deeper dimensions of his metaphysical thought.”

John F. X. Knasas, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the Center for Thomistic Studies at the University of St. Thomas in Houston

“Evangelicals must stop thinking of the medieval period as the long dark time between Augustine and Luther. Geisler’s critical but charitable engagement with Aquinas’ writings provides a helpful introduction to overturning some common misunderstandings about Thomas’ philosophy and offers an invitation to further study in the period.”

John R. Gilhooly, Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Theology and Director of the Honors Program, Cedarville University

“Should old Aquinas be forgot? Absolutely not. Dr. Geisler presents the importance and relevance of Aquinas with his rare ability to get quickly and succinctly at the heart of Aquinas’ major contributions. I highly recommend this book!”

Thomas W. Baker, Associate Professor of Theology and Apologetics, Veritas International University

“It is with great enthusiasm that I commend Dr. Norm Geisler’s evangelical compendium on the theological genius of Saint Thomas Aquinas. In this book, Dr. Geisler is both conductor and instrumentalist as he directs the concerto on the veritas Dei composed by the humble Dominican Friar. To all who have undergone their own intellectual born-again experience and to all who have yet to discover God’s philosophy: Tolle Lege! (“Take up and read!”) Then you will discover why it is the highest compliment to be called a Thomist.”

Kenny Rhodes, Visiting Scholar, Reasons to Believe

“In the 16th through 19th centuries, many Protestant theologians maintained a critical appreciation of the thought of Thomas Aquinas. Some probably qualify as Reformed Thomists. However, from the early 1800s to the mid-1900s, there was a major shift in Protestant reception of Thomistic thought. Aquinas was either ignored or attacked. In the mid-1900s, however, things began to change. Some Protestant scholars began, once again, interacting positively with Aquinas. In 1957, Norman Geisler argued in an article that there were some very good reasons for a renewed Protestant consideration of the thought of Thomas Aquinas, and, more importantly, Protestants could actually embrace the thought of Aquinas on a number of key issues. This is not a novel claim, but, more accurately, a return to the early Reformed approach to the thought of Aquinas. Protestant interest in the work of Aquinas has since continued to grow, creating a debate concerning how much of Aquinas’s thought Protestants can use without compromising the truths of Scripture that were salvaged during the Reform. This revised version of his 1991 book, which includes helpful additions concerning the noetic effects of sin, pure act and divine simplicity, an entirely new chapter on Aquinas’s approach to human nature, a reworking of his chapter on evil, and some new appendices, is a helpful introduction to the thought of Thomas Aquinas, and deserves a wide readership.”

David Haines, Associate Professor of Philosophy and Religion, Veritas International University

If you would like to review an advanced pre-view copy of the third edition of the book and provide a recommendation blurb for it, or if you have any constructive criticism of/for the book, please feel free to send it to the editor through our contact page.

The Battle for the Resurrection

The Battle for the Resurrection, Revised, Third Edition
by Dr. Norman Geisler

This book is available as an e-book at Amazon here: 

This 242 page e-book is a slight revision of the book originally published in 1992. The second edition of this book is available in softcover printed edition at https://wipfandstock.com/the-battle-for-the-resurrection.html and in the Logos format at https://www.logos.com/product/9148/the-battle-for-resurrection.

First it was the battle for the Bible; now it is the battle for the resurrection. First the question was whether we can trust what the Bible says about itself; now the question is whether we can trust what the Bible says about the resurrection. First it was whether inspiration covered only spiritual matters but not historical and scientific statements. Now it is whether the resurrection body is only spiritual or whether it is material, and historically and empirically observable. Geisler’s powerful book on the resurrection defends and explains this central doctrine in light of recent debate, controversy, and skepticism.
Dr. Geisler fought battles for the orthodox doctrine of the resurrection and corrected the unorthodox views of other evangelical seminary professors. The book that started the controversy was Murray Harris’ Raised Immortal (1985). Norman Geisler wrote The Battle for the Resurrection (1989) in response to Harris’ book. Harris responded with another book, From Grave to Glory ( 1990). In 1993, Geisler published In Defense of the Resurrection as a response to Harris.

Praise for the Print Edition

Since the belief in a purely spiritual resurrection of Christ is prevalent in many cults, those involved in countering the rise and growth of cults would benefit greatly from reading this book.
—Walter Martin, author of The Kingdom of the Cults

Dr. Geisler’s book is effectively designed as [an] antidote to the misery of turning Christ’s factual resurrection into an event outside the bounds of ordinary history.
—Dr. John Warwick Montgomery, author of History and Christianity

Geisler demonstrates not only the danger in the theology of various cults but also the tendency to discount the bodily resurrection of the Lord, even among evangelicals. It is essential reading for every pastor and student.
—Dr. Paige Patterson, author of Song of Solomon

The proclamation that Jesus was raised in the same physical body in which he died is just as important today as it was in the first century. The book signals such a call to the importance of this doctrine.
—Dr. Gary Habermas, Distinguished Professor of Apologetics and Philosophy, Liberty University

Dedication 4
Foreword by Dr. Robert D. Culver 6
Introduction 12
1 | The Battle for the Resurrection 14
2 | It Makes a Difference 22
3 | The Bible on the Resurrection 30
4 | I Believe in the Resurrection of the Flesh 40
5 | Denials of the Physical Resurrection 54
6 | Denials of the Physical Resurrection in the Church 73
7 | Physical Resurrection vs. Immaterial Resurrection 94
8 | Evidence for the Physical Resurrection 113
9 | Lessons to be Learned 125
10 | Drawing the Line 140
11 | A Response to Murray Harris 154
APPENDIX A | Does the Resurrection Body Have the Same articles? 180
APPENDIX B | Resurrection Appearances Were Not Theophanies 182
APPENDIX C | Christ’s Deity and Humanity Before and After the Resurrection 185
APPENDIX D | Physical Continuity of Christ Human Body Before and After the Resurrection 186
APPENDIX E | The Old Testament Jewish View of Resurrection 190
APPENDIX F | When Do Believers Receive Their Resurrection Bodies? 193
APPENDIX G | Was Jesus’ Resurrected Body Essentially MATERIAL? 197
APPENDIX H | A Survey on the Resurrection 201
APPENDIX I | Report of the AD HOC Committee to Examine the Views of Dr. Murray J. Harris 203
Notes 215
A Glossary of Important Terms 239
Select Bibliography 240
More Information 242