Category Archives: Uncategorized

What Augustine Says

What Augustine Says, Revised, Second Edition
Norman Geisler

The first edition of this book (1982) may be purchased as a printed book from Wipf and Stock here.

Bastion Books is working to republish a second edition in 2022 or 2023.  


Preface. 11
Sourcs and Abbreviations. 12
Chapter 1: Faith and Reason. 13
I. Reason initially precedes faith. 13
A. Reason helps one judge whether authority is credible. 13
B. Reason precedes faith in reality, not in time. 14
C. Reason tells us that it is reasonable to believe what we cannot ascertain by reason. 14
D. Reason helps us understand the contents of what is to be believed. 15
E. Reason helps us to believe what we cannot see. 15
F. Reason removes objections to belief. 15
G. Reason persuaded by evidence can call one to faith. 16
II. Faith precedes full understanding. 16
A. Faith logically precedes understanding. 16
B. Faith logically proceeds toward understanding. 17
III. Faith rewards reason with clear understanding. 18
A. Faith overcomes deception, the result of sin. 18
B. Only faith can overcome deception. 19
IV. Reason is adequate to demonstrate God’s existence. 20
A. The existence of God can be proven by reason. 20
B. All truth is God’s truth. 23
C. Plato would be a Christian today. 24
D. Reason is inherently more excellent than faith. 24
V. Reason confirms faith with evidence. 25
A. Faith is confirmed through historical miracles. 25
B. with is confirmed through fulfilled prophecy. 28
C. with is confirmed through the conversion of pagans. 29
D. Faith is confirmed through the nature of the Bible. 29
VI. Faith is more profound than reason. 30
A. Faith and reason are distinguishable. 30
B. Faith transcends reason. 30
VII. Faith and reason complement each other. 31
A. Faith and reason are separate sources of truth. 31
B. Faith and reason never contradict 31
VIII. Faith and reason can be used to show truth in an extraordinary manner. 32
Chapter 2: The Bible. 33
I. The Inspiration of the Bible. 33
II. The Authority of the Bible. 36
III. The Inerrancy of the Bible. 39
A. The Bible does not contradict itself. 39
B. The Bible contains no errors. 40
C. The Bible refutes the claims of higher criticism.. 44
IV. The Canonicity of the Bible. 46
A. The Extent of the canon. 46
B. The Closing of the canon. 47
C. The Principles of Canonicity. 48
D. Augustine’s mistaken views on the canon. 49
E. Augustine’s inconsistency on the canon. 50
Chapter 3: God’s Attributes. 51
I. God’s nature. 51
A. Aseity. 51
B. Immutability. 53
C. Indivisibility. 57
D. Omnipresence. 58
E. Omnipotence. 59
F. Immateriality. 59
G. Eternality. 60
II. God’s relation to time. 61
A. The nature of time. 61
B. The relation of time and the act of creation. 66
C. God’s knowledge of time. 71
D. God’s will and time. 73
E. God’s acts and time. 73
Chapter Four: Christ. 75
I. Humanity: Christ as man. 75
A. Christ’s human nature was full and complete. 75
B. Christ’s human nature was necessary for our salvation. 80
C. Christ as man is the second Adam. 82
D. Christ as man necessitates the resurrection of the dead. 83
E. Christ as man judges man on the basis of His humanity. 83
II. Deity: Christ as God. 83
A. Christ’s divine nature is full and complete. 83
B. Christ as God is inseparable from the Father. 86
C. Christ’s actions are as God’s. 89
D. Christ as God is the Mediator for men with God. 91
III. Humanity and Deity: Christ as God and man united in one person. 92
A. Christ incarnate is simultaneously human and divine. 92
B. Christ has both “form of God” and “form of servant.”. 93
C. Christ as the Word (logos) is begotten of the Father. 97
D. Christ as man and God exists in both time and eternity (see also 240-242, 259-261). 99
Chapter 5: Human Beings. 101
I. The creation, of human beings. 101
A. Human beings were created by God. 101
B. Humans are made in God’s image. 103
C. God has created man to have dominion over the animals. 106
D. Whether the soul is originated through creation or by propagation is yet to be decided. 106
E. Humans are meant to be in subjection to God. 108
F. Human happiness depends on God. 108
II. The nature of human beings. 109
A. Humans are a composite being: soul and body. 109
B. Man possesses a material part: the body. 109
C. Man possesses immaterial parts. 113
D. Material and immaterial are related. 118
E. Human nature is good in itself (see also chapter 8, Evil). 122
F. Human nature has been corrupted by evil (see also 602-611). 123
III. The fall of the Human Race (see also 496-510). 124
A. The whole human race was involved in original sin. 124
B. Humans are born in sin. 125
C. Original sin brought condemnation on the entire race. 125
D. The whole human race was corrupted by original sin. 126
E. The human race is wholly corrupted by sin. 127
F. Original sin resulted in death. 127
G. The soul lost its mastery over the body. 128
Chapter 6: Salvation. 129
I. God and salvation. 129
A. The order of God’s decrees. 129
B. Predestination. 131
C. Election. 134
II. Christ and salvation. 137
A. Christ: the basis of true universal faith. 137
B. The extent of Christ’s atonement 137
C. The nature of Christ’s atonement: penal substitution. 139
D. The effects of Christ’s atonement 143
E. Christ as priest-mediator. 148
F. The necessity of Christ’s incarnation for His death. 150
III. The Holy Spirit and salvation. 152
A. God’s Holy Spirit is the effectual agent in the effectual call. 152
B. God’s Holy Spirit is the continuous witness of God’s love for man. 154
IV. God’s revelation and salvation. 155
A. Creation is a witness to the creator. 155
B. Scripture is a witness to the Saviour. 155
V. The witness and help of others in salvation. 158
A. The benefits of the prayers and witness of others. 158
B. The relation of works and salvation. 159
C. Relation of baptism and forgiveness of sins. 160
Chapter 7: Free Will and Grace. 163
I. The nature of free will. 163
A. Free will is first defined. 163
B. Free will is a created good. 163
C. Free will implies the ability to do evil. 163
D. Free will entails moral responsibility. 164
E. Free will involves the power not to sin. 164
F. Free will involves the power to believe or not believe. 164
G. Free will allows one to perform free acts. 165
II. Free will and the fall. 168
A. Sin arises when the will chooses a lower good (see 625). 168
B. Human beings fell voluntarily, without compulsion. 169
C. Fallen humans have lost the freedom to do good without God’s help. 170
D. Fallen persons retain free will to do evil. 171
E. Fallen persons retain freedom to accept God’s grace. 172
III. The need for grace to aid free will. 173
A. All evil comes from an evil will. 173
B. Grace is needed to overcome an evil will. 173
C. Only the redeemed are truly free. 174
D. Grace is needed to keep God’s laws. 175
E. Grace is needed to perform any good act. 176
E. Even faith is a gift of God. 176
G. But God’s gifts are received by free choice. 177
H. However, there is no merit in our free will. 180
IV. The nature and function of grace with free will. 181
V. Some problems in human understanding of grace and free will. 182
C. Does God desire all men to be saved?. 183
E. Is God’s saving grace resistible?. 185
F. Is God’s saving grace compulsive?. 187
G. Why is it just to save only some?. 189
H. Is it fair to condemn infants who have made no free choice?. 190
Chapter 8: Evil. 193
I. Every substance as such is good. 193
A. All of God’s Creation is Good. 193
B. There is no evil substance (see 602-604). 194
C. All who depart from goodness show they were created good. 195
D. No departures from goodness are from God. 195
II. The Supreme Good is Incorruptible. 196
A. Created Good Results From a Good Creator. 196
B. The Supreme Good is Eternal and Incorruptible. 196
C. The Supreme Good is Separate From Corruptible Substance. 197
III. Only created Goods are Corruptible. 198
A. All substance is created by God. 198
B. Created goods are corruptible because they are mutable. 198
C. Created goods differ in degree. 199
D. Corruption results from abandoning untreated good. 199
IV. Evil is not a Substance. 200
A. Evil tends toward nonexistence. 200
B. Evil has no positive nature. 200
C. All created substance is good. 200
V. Evil is a Corruption of Substance. 201
A. Evil is defined as “corruption.”. 201
B. Evil as corruption is contrary to nature. 201
C. Corruption is the result of sin. 202
D. The source of this sin is the will (see also 618-628). 202
VI. Evil is not caused by God. 203
A. God is incorruptible, therefore He cannot cause corruption. 203
B. God did not cause the first evil will. 203
C. God cannot be the cause of evil. 204
D. God is not to be blamed for the creature’s faults. 204
E. God permits evil so that we will desire the future blessed life. 204
VII. The Abuse of Freedom is the Cause of Evil. 205
A. Evil came through freedom (see 473-500). 205
B. Evil is freely turning from the infinite good to the lesser good (see 601). 205
C. Pride is the beginning of evil. 207
D. Man’s misuse of freedom is possible due to his being made out of nothing. 207
E. All men are affected by the first parents’ turn from good (see 373-385). 207
VIII. Evil Never Completely Corrupts Good. 208
A. Every damaged nature was originally good. 208
B. Evil is defect in created good. 208
C. Evil is never total. 208
IX. Evil is Part of a Total Picture of Good. 209
A. God foresaw but permitted evil. 209
B. It was good for God to permit evil. 210
C. God accomplishes a greater good by permitting evil. 210
Chapter 9: Ethics 213
I. The Love Ethic. 213
A. Supreme love. 213
B. The love of God. 213
C. The love of self. 214
D. Love and virtues. 215
E. Virtue and Christianity. 218
F. Virtue, a precondition of truth. 218
II. Ethical Dilemmas. 218
A. General Conflicts. 218
B. Special Cases. 220
III. Specific Ethical Issues. 221
A. War. 221
B. Suicide. 222
C. Lying. 222
D. Rape. 224
E. Sex. 224
F. Nudity. 225
G. Gluttony. 225
H. Ethics and Progressive Revelation. 226
Appendix One: Early and Late Augustine on Free Will and Grace. 228
Key Influences on Augustine’s Change of View on Free Will and Grace. 228
Some Contrasts between the Early and Later View of Augustine on Grace and Free Will 228
Key Books Involved in the Early and Late View on Grace and Free Will 229

Gambling is a Bad Bet


is a 5 page booklet by Dr. Norman Geisler that responds to the usual arguments given in favor of gambling and gives several arguments (moral, statistical, economic, cultural, social, domestic, and addictive) against gambling.

This should become available on Amazon in 2019. 

Should Believers Make Ashes of Themselves?

Should Believers Make Ashes of Themselves? Cremation: The Burning Question
by Dr. Norman L. Geisler

This is not available at this time. Bastion Books intends to make it available in 2022 or 2023.  


Traditionally Christians, Orthodox Jews, and Muslims have practiced burial and not cremation. But the tide is turning, at least for Christians. Is this good or bad? What does burial symbolize? Is Cremation a Christian symbol?

Cremation is on the Increase in the US
In 1975 the number of US cremations was less than 10%. Today it is over 40%. Within a decade it is projected to be over 50%. Cremation varies from state to state. In some states it rises to 70%, and in others it is only 10%. Likewise, in some countries like Japan the cremation rate is 95%, while in other countries like Poland (largely Catholic) it is only 10%.
Views on cremation vary among religions. Buddhism and Hinduism require it, whereas, the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) have traditionally disapproved it. It is allowed by many other groups, such as Shinto, Reformed Judaism, Christian Science, Unitarians, Methodists, Episcopalians, and others.
Many arguments, pro and con, have been offered on the topic of cremation. First, we will examine the reasons generally given in favor of it (chap. 2). Then, we will offer a brief response to them by opponents (chap. 3). Following that, we will look at the reasons often offered for burial rather than burning the dead (chap. 4). Finally, we will attempt to answer some tough questions relating to the practice of burial of the dead (chap. 5).

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: What is Cremation?. 5
Chapter 2: Reasons Given in Favor of Cremation. 8
Chapter 3: Responses Given to Arguments for Cremation. 12
Chapter 4: Reasons in Favor of Burial 17
Chapter 5: Answering Tough Questions. 25
Appendix 1: Responding to Alleged Biblical Examples of Cremation. 28

The Roots of Evil

The Roots of Evil, Revised, Third Edition
by Dr. Norman L. Geisler

In 2013, Norm made some minor revisions to the book and added additional material in the form of appendices. Bastion Books plans to publish this third edition in 2022 or 2023. Please check back for more updates!


Illusionism… 8
Dualism… 10
Atheism… 15
Finite Godism… 17
Sadism… 20
Open Theism… 22
Options Open to God to Create Better Worlds. 33
The Best Way to the Best World. 38
The Beatific Vision: Seeing God Face-to-Face. 40
But what about the choice to do Evil?. 41
Why Did God Create a World where He Knew that Not all Would be Saved?. 42
Concluding Thoughts. 43
What About Gratuitous Evil?. 50
Why Doesn’t God Miraculously Intervene to Stop Evil?. 51
APPENDIX 2 | Questions About the Eternal Destiny of the Lost. 60
APPENDIX 5 | 9 Points for Preaching on the Problem of Evil 96
More Questions Than Answers?. 96
The Atheist’s Dilemma. 97
Evil Cries Out for God. 97
If God Created Only Good Things, Then Where Did Evil Come From?. 98
What Caused Lucifer to Sin?. 98
But If God Is All-Good and All-Powerful, Why Is Evil Not Defeated?. 99
What About the Holocaust?. 100
Why Earthquakes, Tornados, and Tsunamis?. 100
God Never Wastes a Tragedy. 101
No Pain, No Gain. 101

Signs and Wonders

Signs and Wonders
Norman L. Geisler
1988, 2019

Available on in softcover print and Kindle formats!

The first edition of this book was published by Tyndale House Publishers (1988) and by Wipf and Stock publishers (2004).

This 2019 version is available only through Bastion Books on This 2019 version is only slightly revised, has an updated forward by Norm, and remains 99% the same as the 1988/2004 version.


Chapter 1 – Alice in Signs-and-Wonders-Land. 7
Chapter 2 – What Do We Mean by “Supernatural”?. 17
Chapter 3 – Skeptical or Open-Minded?. 26
Chapter 4 – Truly Supernatural or Merely Unusual?. 39
Chapter 5 – Miracle or Magic. 52
Chapter 6 – Psychological or Supernatural?. 69
Chapter 7 – Demonic or Divine?. 85
Chapter 8 – Is There a Yardstick for Miracles?. 99
Chapter 9 – Do Miracles Occur Today?. 116
Appendix 1 – Miracles and the Element of Faith. 136
Appendix 2 – Are Miracles Always Successful, Immediate, and Permanent?. 139
Appendix 3 – Is the New Testament Gift of Prophecy Fallible?. 145
Appendix 4 – The Miracle of Manna. 150
Appendix 5- Were New Testament Tongues Real Languages?. 152
Appendix 6 – The Use of Physical Objects in Healing. 155
Appendix 7 -Did Only Apostles Speak in Tongues at Pentecost?. 157
Appendix 8 – New Testament Lists of Gifts. 159
Glossary of Special Terms. 162
Works Cited. 163
More Information. 167

Paperback print copies of the 2004 may also be available for purchase at Wipf and Stock.

Electronic versions of the 1988/2004 version can be purchased at 

The Jesus Quest (Free!)

The Jesus Quest: The Danger from Within

This book is available for download as a *free* PDF file courtesy of Drs. Farnell and Geisler here. (<< Click to download!)

This book is available as a printed softcover book and as a kindle e-book on Amazon:

This work examines the historical and philosophical strengths and/or weaknesses of current evangelical approaches espousing some forms of post-modernistic historiography and its resultant search for the “historical Jesus.” It demonstrates the marked undermining impact these efforts have had on the biblical text, especially the Gospels, as well inerrancy issues. It compares the Jesus Seminar’s approach with current evangelical practices of searching in terms of their evidential apologetic impact on the trustworthiness of the Gospels. A number of well-known, contemporary evangelical scholars are involved in the so-called “Third Quest” for the historical Jesus. This book raises serious questions about such an endeavor.


Norman L. Geisler, Ph.D., Chancellor, Veritas Evangelical Seminary; Distinguished Professor of Apologetics and Theology

F. David Farnell, Ph.D., Senior Professor of New Testament, The Master’s Seminary

Richard G. Howe, Ph.D., Professor of Philosophy and Apologetics, Southern Evangelical Seminary

Thomas A. Howe, Ph.D., Professor of Bible and Biblical Languages, Southern Evangelical Seminary

William E. Nix, Ph.D., Professor of Historical and Theological Studies, Veritas Evangelical Seminary

William C. Roach, Ph.D., Co-Author of Defending Inerrancy

Dennis M. Swanson, D.Min., Vice President for Library and Educational Assessment

Norman L. Geisler is a world-renown Christian apologist who has written over 80 books. He is Chancellor of Veritas Evangelical Seminary in Murrieta, California. Dr. Geisler was a key founder of the historic International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (1978) as well as the International Council on Biblical Hermeneutics (1982).

F. David Farnell is Senior Professor of New Testament at The Master’s Seminary. He was co-editor of The Jesus Crisis (1998) as well as contributor to other books (e.g. Three Views on Origins of the Synoptic Gospels, 2002). He specializes in the impact of historical-critical philosophical ideologies in New Testament Criticism and Interpretation.

The Book of Romans in Logical Form


By Shawn Nelson


This book is available at Amazon here: 

From the Foreword by Dr. Norman Geisler

In studying the Bible, it is possible to get lost in the forest for the trees. Hence, Bible survey is necessary so that one can see the total biblical context of what is being studied and not get lost somewhere on a leaf on a twig on a branch of some isolated tree.

Likewise, in doing a detailed study of a text it is possible to lose the overall logical flow of the text. One way to counter this tendency is to outline the logic of the passage. No book in the Bible is more suited for doing this than the Book of Romans. It has been long held that the logic of the book of Romans is tight. However, few have attempted to successfully untie the knot. This book is an admirable attempt to overcome that difficulty. One reason for this is the lack of logical skills on the part of many exegetes. Another is the lack of exegetical skills on the part of logicians. Shawn Nelson has combined skills in both areas to produce a valuable tool for students of God’s Word.

Another axiom of interpretation is the failure to understand a text in its context. Here again, the inability to see the logical flow of the text comes into play. Few interpreters have taken the time and/or have the talent to outline the logical form of the passage. But without this, one can easily get lost in a sea of words. The end result of this is, at best, a word study of the text, not a correct interpretation of it. Again, the only cure for this is to have the ability and to take the time to outline the passage in its logical form.

This small but valuable book lays out the logic of the entire book of Romans in a way that is indispensable to properly understand one of the most important books in the Bible. It is truly unique. I highly commend it to all readers of Romans.


Foreword. 6
Understanding This Book. 7
Categorical Syllogisms. 7
Sorites. 9
Hypothetical Syllogisms. 11
Disjunctive Syllogisms. 12
Dilemmas. 13
Part 1– Simplified Version
Romans 1. 15
Romans 2. 22
Romans 3. 26
Romans 4. 32
Romans 5. 36
Romans 6. 41
Romans 7. 46
Romans 8. 50
Romans 9. 58
Romans 10. 64
Romans 11. 68
Romans 12. 74
Romans 13. 77
Romans 14. 79
Romans 15. 83
Romans 16. 88
Part 2 – Advanced Version (With Symbols and Validation)
Romans 1 (Advanced)93
Romans 2 (Advanced)100
Romans 3 (Advanced)105
Romans 4 (Advanced)112
Romans 5 (Advanced)116
Romans 6 (Advanced)121
Romans 7 (Advanced)126
Romans 8 (Advanced)131
Romans 9 (Advanced)139
Romans 10 (Advanced)145
Romans 11 (Advanced)150
Romans 12 (Advanced)156
Romans 13 (Advanced)159
Romans 14 (Advanced)161
Romans 15 (Advanced)165
Romans 16 (Advanced)171

Sola Fide

Sola Fide: A Primer on Paul’s Doctrine of Justification in Romans
by William C. Roach

This book is available at Amazon here: 

Since the time of the Reformation, Protestants have sounded the motto: Justification is by faith alone. Counter-Reformers responded to Protestant theologians claiming sola fide is a legal fiction and foreign to the text of Scripture. Advocates of the New Perspective on Paul have responded to the Protestant doctrine of justification, offering a “fresh” or “new” perspective on Paul’s theology, one grounded in the pattern of religion prevalent in Second Temple Judaism. Among their many conclusions is the belief that Augustine and his followers, including the Reformers and present-day evangelicalism, have misunderstood Paul and his letters.

The influence of both Roman Catholic and NPP theologians has sounded an alarm for many Protestant theologians and pastors, such as William Roach, an ordained minister and theologian. If Protestant theologians forego the classic doctrine of justification and Roman Catholic or NPP views find a home in the church or seminaries, not only could the doctrine of justification be distorted in this age, but any grasp and assurance of Paul’s theology would be lost too. So, Roach is sounding a warning in this primer, which has been written to equip the local church to defend the classic and biblical view of justification.

Somewhere Under the Rainbow

Somewhere Under the Rainbow: A Christian Look at Same-Sex “Marriage”

by Norman L. Geisler
and Doug Van Gordon

This is available on Amazon here: 

This book looks at the events and forces that over the course of decades have undermined the traditional view of marriage to such an extent, as to allow the idea of same–sex “marriage” to become the law of the land. It examines the biblical view of marriage since that view has been the assumption of most of western civilization for the last 2,000 years. It also considers the early Church Father’s view on marriage as well as ancient Greece and Rome. It then examines the arguments used by same–sex marriage advocates to see if in fact Christians need to rethink the issue of homosexuality and marriage and adopt a more “inclusive” interpretation of Scripture. Finally, it looks at how the church can help those struggling with homosexuals who desire to lead godly lives in accordance with His Word. The authors are conservative evangelicals who believe in the inerrancy of Scripture that it is sufficient for faith and practice. They believe that the issue of same–sex “marriage” goes to the heart of who we are as human beings and challenges the biblical teaching that the church has held for over 2,000 years. The goal is not to win arguments but to win souls, to give clarity to those confused by the claims of same–sex “marriage” advocates, and to help the church reach out anew to those dealing with homosexuality in their lives.


Part One – How Did We Get Here? And What Have We Have Lost Along the Way?
Chapter 1 The 1950s 11
Chapter 2 The 1960s 22
Chapter 3 The 1970s 33
Chapter 4 The 1980s 44
Chapter 5 Searching for Scientific Justification 55

Part Two – What does the Bible Say?
Chapter 6 God’s First Revelation 66
Chapter 7 God’s Final Revelation 77
Chapter 8 Answering Objections 88

Part Three – Help, Hope, and Healing
Chapter 9 Help, through Christ’s People 99
Chapter 10 Hope, In Christ for those who Believe Him 110
Chapter 11 Healing, Through God’s Spirit 111
Epilogue 112