Is the Pope Infallible?

Is the Pope Infallible? A Look at the Evidence
by Dr. Norman L. Geisler

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Introduction. 5
Chapter 1 | The Meaning of Infallibility. 7
The Claim to Infallibility. 7
The Limits of Infallibility. 8
The Sphere of Infallibility: Faith and Morals. 8
The Consequences of Denying Infallibility: Eternal Damnation. 9
Chapter 2 | The History of the Roman Catholic Claim to Papal Authority. 10
The Development of the Authoritarian Structure of the Roman Church. 10
The Development of the Roman Claim to Exclusivity. 12
The Background of Rome’s Claims. 13
Cyprian (d. 258) 13
St. Augustine (354–430) 14
“Imperial Edict” (ad 680) 14
The Second Council of Nicea (ad 787) 14
Fourth Lateran Council (ad 1215) 15
Thomas Aquinas (1224–1274) 15
Pope Boniface VIII (1234–1303) 16
The Council of Trent (ad 1545-63) 16
Vatican I Council (1870) 16
Vatican II (1962–1965) 17
The Catechism of the Catholic Church (1994) 17
Chapter 3 | The Biblical Arguments against Papal Infallibility. 19
The Biblical Argument against Peter’s Primacy. 19
The Biblical Argument against Peter’s Infallibility. 20
The Historical Argument against Infallibility. 21
The Argument from Conflicting Popes. 22
The Argument from Heretical Popes. 23
The Argument from the Condemnation of Galileo. 26
The Argument from Contradictory Decisions of Ecumenical Councils. 27
The Epistemic Argument against Infallibility. 29
The Argument from the Lack of Infallible Lists of Infallible Statements. 30
The Argument from Death by Qualification. 31
The Logical Extension Argument against Infallibility. 31
Chapter 4 | Some Serious Implications. 34
Rome is not the True Church. 34
Is Rome a False Church?. 34
Rome’s False Doctrines. 34
A True Church with Significant Error?. 35
Where is the True Church?. 36
Who is the Head of Christ’s Visible Church on Earth?. 37
Chapter 5 | Why Catholics are Leaving the Church in Mass. 41
Good News and Bad News. 41
Why a Few Evangelicals are become Catholic. 41
Why Catholics Become Evangelicals. 43
Why Some Evangelicals Become Catholics. 44
The Reasons Given for Converting to Roman Catholicism… 45
C. S. Lewis: A Case Study. 53
Bibliography. 55
Additional Information 58