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Beware of Philosophy

Beware of Philosophy: A Warning to Biblical Scholars

by Dr. Norman L. Geisler

Available at Amazon here:

            {forthcoming 2019}

Available as a free .PDF e-book here and as a .EPUB e-book here.

Beware of Philosophy began as the presidential address Dr. Geisler delivered to the biblical scholars at the 50th annual meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS) on November 19th, 1998.  This eBook edition remains essentially the same but was updated slightly by Dr. Geisler in 2012.

Dr. Geisler begins with this warning:

The exhortation of the apostle Paul to “beware of philosophy” (Col. 2:8) is as urgent today as it was in the first century, if not more so. And this is not only true for Christians who call themselves philosophers but for those who do not, especially for biblical exegetes. Although the context of Col. 2:8 probably has reference to a proto-gnostic type philosophy at Colossae that had a disastrous mix of legalism, asceticism, and mysticism with Christianity, the implications of Paul’s exhortation to “beware of philosophy” are appropriately applied to other alien systems of thought that have invaded Christianity down through the centuries since then.

But before one can beware of philosophy, theologians must first be aware of philosophy.  Dr. Geisler begins by explaining the sour theological fruit produced by the incursion of harmfulphilosophical roots.  He warns against Naturalism, Spinoza, Hume, Bultmann, Agnosticism, Evolutionism, Progressivism, Existentialism, Phenomenology, Conventionalism, Processism, Platonic Allegorism, Ockhamistic Nominalism, Aristotelianism, Anthropological Monism, and Historical Criticism.  He proceeds to offer helpful advice for the mind and for the soul–advice meant to help us avoid being influenced negatively by harmfulphilosophical trends and methods.  This makes it a “must read”for all biblical scholars and for advanced students of God’s word!


Miracles and the Modern Mind

Miracles and the Modern Mind: A Defense of Biblical Miracles, Revised, Second Edition
by Norman L. Geisler
2012

Available as an e-book at Amazon here:

Dr. Geisler wrote this book in 1992 and gave it a minor revision in 2012.

The earlier 1992 edition is still available as a softcover printed book through Wipf&Stock (here) and is available as a digital book at Logos.com (here).

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION.. 5
1 | ARE MIRACLES IMPOSSIBLE?. 8
2 | ARE MIRACLES INCREDIBLE?. 18
3 | ARE MIRACLES IRRATIONAL?. 28
4 | ARE MIRACLES UNSCIENTIFIC?. 38
5 | ARE MIRACLES IDENTIFIABLE?. 49
6 | ARE MIRACLES MYTHOLOGICAL?. 60
7 | ARE MIRACLES HISTORICAL?. 68
8 | ARE MIRACLES ESSENTIAL?. 76
9 | ARE MIRACLES DEFINABLE?. 84
10 | ARE MIRACLES ANTINATURAL?. 92
11 | ARE MIRACLES DISTINGUISHABLE?. 101
12 | ARE MIRACLES ACTUAL?. 118
APPENDIX A – THE HISTORICITY OF O.T. MIRACLES. 134
APPENDIX B – SUPERNATURAL EVENTS IN THE BIBLE.. 137
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 151

Christ: The Theme of the Bible

Christ: The Theme of the Bible

by Dr. Norman L. Geisler

2012

Available as an e-book at Amazon here:

This hard-to-find classic from 1968 was updated in 2012 by Dr. Geisler. Of all the eighty-plus books Dr. Geisler has so far written, this one is dearest to his heart.   It encourages the reader to “look unto Jesus the author and perfecter of our faith” (Heb 12:2). It was went under the title: To Understand the Bible, Look for Jesus.

In 2018 this was translated from English into three other languages: Rumanian, Telugu, and Spanish. We hope to make those available soon too.

CONTENTS

Chapter 1 | Christ is the Key to the Bible 7

CHRIST: THE KEY TO THE BIBLE’S INSPIRATION 7

CHRIST: THE KEY TO THE BIBLE’S CANONIZATION 14

CHRIST: THE KEY TO THE BIBLE’S AUTHENTICATION 20

CHRIST: THE KEY TO THE BIBLE’S INTERPRETATION 26

Chapter 2 | Christ in the Old Testament 27

CHRIST: THE FULFILLMENT OF OLD TESTAMENT MESSIANIC PROPHECY 28

CHRIST: THE FULFILLMENT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT PRIESTHOODS 32

CHRIST: THE FULFILLMENT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT MORAL PRECEPTS 37

CHRIST: THE FULFILLMENT OF SALVATION PROMISES 42

JESUS IS JEHOVAH (YAHWEH) 43

Chapter 3 | Christ in Both Testaments 47

CHRIST: CONCEALED IN THE OLD AND REVEALED IN THE NEW 48

CHRIST: FROM THE SHADOWS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT TO THE SUBSTANCE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT 51

CHRIST: FORETOLD IN THE OLD TESTAMENT AND FULFILLED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 55

SUMMARY 60

Chapter 4 | Christ in Every Section of the Bible 61

A FOURFOLD CHRISTOCENTRIC STRUCTURE OF SCRIPTURE 61

A SIXFOLD CHRISTOCENTRIC STRUCTURE OF SCRIPTURE 68

AN EIGHTFOLD CHRISTOCENTRIC STRUCTURE OF SCRIPTURE  72

FOURFOLD PARALLEL BETWEEN OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS 73

Chapter 5 | Christ in Each Book of the Bible 78

THE LAW: THE FOUNDATION FOR CHRIST 78

HISTORY: THE PREPARATION FOR CHRIST 81

POETRY: ASPIRATION FOR CHRIST 84

PROPHECY: EXPECTATION OF CHRIST 86

THE GOSPELS: THE MANIFESTATION OF CHRIST 89

ACTS: THE EVANGELIZATION OR PROPAGATION OF CHRIST 91

THE EPISTLES: INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF CHRIST 91

PAULINE EPISTLES: EXPOSITION OF CHRIST 92

GENERAL EPISTLES: EXHORTATION IN CHRIST 95

REVELATION: CONSUMMATION IN CHRIST 97

Chapter 6 | The Word of God:  Personal and Propositional 99

THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE LIVING AND WRITTEN WORD 100

THE SUPERIORITY OF THE LIVING WORD OVER THE WRITTEN WORD 101

THE WRITTEN WORD IS IMPORTANT TO THE LIVING WORD 105

INSPIRATION IS IMPORTANT FOR THE PROPAGATION OF CHRIST 106

INSPIRATION IS IMPORTANT TO THE INTERPRETATION OF CHRIST 107

Bibliography 111

Additional search keywords:
To Understand the Bible Look for Jesus: The Bible Student’s Guide to the Bible’s Central Theme
Christ: the Key to Interpreting the Bible

Christology; Christocentric

Is the Pope Infallible?

Is the Pope Infallible? A Look at the Evidence
by Dr. Norman L. Geisler
2012

Available at Amazon here:
{forthcoming – 2019}

Contents
Introduction. 5
Chapter 1 | The Meaning of Infallibility. 7
The Claim to Infallibility. 7
The Limits of Infallibility. 8
The Sphere of Infallibility: Faith and Morals. 8
The Consequences of Denying Infallibility: Eternal Damnation. 9
Chapter 2 | The History of the Roman Catholic Claim to Papal Authority. 10
The Development of the Authoritarian Structure of the Roman Church. 10
The Development of the Roman Claim to Exclusivity. 12
The Background of Rome’s Claims. 13
Cyprian (d. 258) 13
St. Augustine (354–430) 14
“Imperial Edict” (ad 680) 14
The Second Council of Nicea (ad 787) 14
Fourth Lateran Council (ad 1215) 15
Thomas Aquinas (1224–1274) 15
Pope Boniface VIII (1234–1303) 16
The Council of Trent (ad 1545-63) 16
Vatican I Council (1870) 16
Vatican II (1962–1965) 17
The Catechism of the Catholic Church (1994) 17
Chapter 3 | The Biblical Arguments against Papal Infallibility. 19
The Biblical Argument against Peter’s Primacy. 19
The Biblical Argument against Peter’s Infallibility. 20
The Historical Argument against Infallibility. 21
The Argument from Conflicting Popes. 22
The Argument from Heretical Popes. 23
The Argument from the Condemnation of Galileo. 26
The Argument from Contradictory Decisions of Ecumenical Councils. 27
The Epistemic Argument against Infallibility. 29
The Argument from the Lack of Infallible Lists of Infallible Statements. 30
The Argument from Death by Qualification. 31
The Logical Extension Argument against Infallibility. 31
Chapter 4 | Some Serious Implications. 34
Rome is not the True Church. 34
Is Rome a False Church?. 34
Rome’s False Doctrines. 34
A True Church with Significant Error?. 35
Where is the True Church?. 36
Who is the Head of Christ’s Visible Church on Earth?. 37
Chapter 5 | Why Catholics are Leaving the Church in Mass. 41
Good News and Bad News. 41
Why a Few Evangelicals are become Catholic. 41
Why Catholics Become Evangelicals. 43
Why Some Evangelicals Become Catholics. 44
The Reasons Given for Converting to Roman Catholicism… 45
C. S. Lewis: A Case Study. 53
Bibliography. 55
Additional Information 58

The Shack: Helpful or Heretical?

The Shack: Helpful or Heretical? A Critical Review
by Norman L. Geisler and Bill Roach

Available at Amazon here:

This 13-page e-booklet is a critique by Norman Geisler and Bill Roach of the popular book by William P. Young titled The Shack. Geisler and Roach provide some background on the book, give the basic story of the book, and provides fourteen warnings about the book. Some of the critiques fit well with some segments of the emergent church movement as well.

The Christian Love Ethic

The Christian Love Ethic
by Dr. Norman L. Geisler

Available at Amazon here:
              {Forthcoming – 2019}

Jesus summarized our entire moral duty in two commands: Love God and love others (Mat. 22:37-40). Taking these words seriously, this book constructs the whole Christian Ethic on life-and-death issues in terms of these commands. This book was first published in 1973 as The Christian Ethic of Love and has become difficult to find in print. It has been completely revised by Dr. Geisler in 2012 and should be available on Amazon soon.

Contents:
Chapter 1 – LOVE: THE MORAL ABSOLUTE 9
THE IMPOSSIBILITY OF DENYING ABSOLUTES 9
AFFIRMING AND DEFENDING MORAL ABSOLUTES 11
COMMON MISUNDERSTANDINGS OF MORAL RELATIVISTS 14
CONCLUDING COMMENTS 15
Chapter 2 – GOD: THE NATURE OF ABSOLUTE LOVE 16
THE SOURCES OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD AS LOVE 16
THE NATURE OF GOD AS LOVE 17
THE RELATION OF WRATH TO GOD’S LOVE 19
SOME IMPLICATIONS OF GOD’S LOVE 22
Chapter 3 – LOVING ON TWO LEVELS 23
THE TWO GREAT COMMANDMENTS 23
CONFLICT BETWEEN THE TWO GREAT COMMANDMENTS 25
RESOLVING THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE TWO LEVELS OF LOVE 27 IN SUMMATION 28
Chapter 4 – LOVING OTHERS AND ONE’S SELF 29
LOVING OTHERS COMPREHENSIVELY 29
LOVING OTHERS COMPLETELY 32
LOVING ONE’S SELF CORRECTLY 33 SUMMARY 35
Chapter 5 – LAWS: PUTTING LOVE INTO WORDS 36
LOVE IN THE LAW OF MOSES 36
LAW AND LOVE IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 38
THE RELATION OF LAW AND LOVE 40
A FINAL THOUGHT 42
Chapter 6 – CHRIST: PUTTING LOVE INTO LIFE 43
CHRIST: THE PERFECTION OF THE LAW 43
CHRIST: THE BELIEVER’S PATTERN 46
SUMMING IT UP 48
Chapter 7 – THE ALTERNATIVES OF LOVE 49
THE FIRST WAY: THERE IS ONLYONE ABSOLUTE DUTY OF LOVE 50
THE SECOND WAY: THERE IS ALWAYS A THIRD ALTERNATIVE FOR LOVE 52
THIRD WAY: PERFORMING THE LEAST NON-LOVING ACT 55
THE FOURTH WAY: DO THE MOST LOVING THING, SUBORDINATING THE LOWER LAWS OF LOVE TO THE HIGHER ONES 57
A BRIEF SUMMARY 58
Chapter 8 – THE CONFLICTS OF LOVE 60 LOVE FOR GOD VS. LOVE FOR OTHER HUMANS 60
LIFE-SAVING VS. TRUTH TELLING 61 LOVE FOR PERSONS VS. LOVE FOR THINGS 63
LOVE FOR MANY PERSONS VS. LOVE FOR FEW PERSONS 64
LOVE FOR THE UNBORN VS. RIGHTS OF THE MOTHER 65
IN SUMMATION 66
Chapter 9 – LOVE AND OTHER MORAL DUTIES 68
GOD IS ABSOLUTELY ONE IN ESSENCE 68
GOD HAS MANY MORAL ATTRIBUTES 68
HOW ARE DIFFERENT MORAL ATTRIBUTES COMPATIBLE? 68
Love and Murder 69
Love and Truth 70
Love and Justice 70
Love and Stealing 70
Love and Jealousy 71
Love and Adultery 71
Love and Coveting 71
A FINAL WORD 72
Chapter 10 – THE WEIGHTIER MATTERS OF LOVE 73
GREATER AND LESSER GOODS 73
WEIGHING THE ALTERNATIVES FOR LOVE 76
THE ROLE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT 78
CONCLUDING COMMENTS 79
Chapter 11 – LOVE AND LIFE-TAKING 80
LOVE NEVER DEMANDS LIFE-TAKING AS SUCH 80
LOVE AND SUICIDE 81 LOVE AND THE ULTIMATE SACRICE 83
LOVE AND THE UNBORN 83 LOVE AND LITTLE CHILDREN 83
LOVE AND THE HANDICAPPED 84 LOVE AND THE ELDERLY 84
LOVE AND THE TERMNALLY ILL 85
LOVE AND THE UNRESCUABLE 86
LOVE AND ANIMAL RIGHTS 87
LOVE AND ASSSTED SUICIDE 88
LOVE AND SACRIFICING ONE’S LIFE FOR OTHERS 88
LOVE AND CAPITAL PUNISHMENT 89
SOME FINAL THOUGHTS 91
Chapter 12 – LOVE AND WAR 92
LOVE AND THE COMMAND OF ONE’S GOVERNMENT 92
LOVE AND THE COMMAND OF JESUS NOT TO RESIST EVIL 94
LOVE AND A JUST WAR 99
LOVE AND A PREMEPTIVE STRIKE 102
SOME FINAL THOUGHTS 103
SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 104

History of Western Philosophy – Volume II – Modern and Postmodern

A History of Western Philosophy, Volume II: Modern and Postmodern: From Descartes to Derrida
By Dr. Norman L. Geisler
2012

Available at Amazon here:

Having covered ancient and medieval philosophy in Volume I, Dr. Geisler proceeds to tackle the modern and post-modern periods of philosophy–from Descartes to Derrida! One of the things that makes this history of philosophy unique is the way Dr. Geisler provides a critical analysis of the philosophies through from a Christian, Biblical, and Thomistic viewpoint.

This is the second volume of a two-volume set on the history of philosophy from the Pre-Socratics to the Post-moderns. It offers comprehensive exposition of the greatest and most influential thinkers of the western world from a Christian perspective. This very unique set is the result of a life-time of research, teaching, and writing by Dr. Geisler, the founder and first president of the Evangelical Philosophical Society.

Contents

Introduction. 6

The Rationalists. 11
RENE DESCARTES (A.D. 1596—1650) 11
BENEDICT SPINOZA (A. D. 1632—1677) 23
GOTTFRIED LEIBNIZ (A.D. 1646—1716) 37
BLAISE PASCAL (A.D. 1623—1662) 48
Early Modern Scientists. 56
FRANCIS BACON (A.D. 1561—1626) 56
GALILEI GALILEO (A.D. 1564—1642) 63

The Empiricists. 69
JOHN LOCKE (A.D. 1632—1704) 69
GEORGE BERKELEY (A.D. 1685—1753) 82
DAVID HUME (A.D. 1711—1776) 92
IMMANUEL KANT (c. A.D. 1724—1804) 108

THE ENLIGHTENMENT—AN INTRODUCTION.. 123
British Enlightenment. 127
The French Enlightenment. 128
German Enlightenment. 132
American Enlightenment. 133

Post-Kantian Idealism… 135
JOHANN GOTTLIEB FICHTE (A.D. 1762—1814) 136
FRIEDRICH WILHELM JOSEPH VON SCHELLING (A.D. 1775—1854) 142
GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL (A.D. 1770—1831) 146
JOSIAH ROYCE (A.D. 1855—1916) 155
LUDWIG FEUERBACH (A.D. 1804—1872) 163
FRIEDRICH SCHLEIERMACHER (A.D. 1768—1834) 169
ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER (A.D. 1788—1860) 177
SØREN KIERKEGAARD (A.D. 1813—1855) 189
FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE (A.D. 1844—1900) 204
KARL BARTH (A.D. 1886—1968) 213
MARTIN BUBER (A.D. 1878—1965) 220
EMIL BRUNNER (A.D. 1889—1966) 225
INTRODUCTION TO PHENOMENOLOGY. 231
EDMUND HUSSERL (A.D. 1859—1938) 232
MARTIN HEIDEGGER (A.D. 1889—1976) 238
PAUL TILLICH (A.D. 1886—1965) 250
RUDOLF BULTMANN (A.D. 1884—1976) 255
JEAN-PAUL SARTRE (A.D 1905—1980) 259
KARL MARX (c. A. D. 1818—1883) 265
INTRODUCTION TO POSITIVISM (SCIENTISM) 270
AUGUSTE COMTE (A.D. 1798—1857) 275
HERBERT SPENCER (A.D. 1820—1903) 285
CHARLES DARWIN (A.D. 1809—1882) 293
ALFRED JULES AYER (A.D. 1910—1989) 305
UTILITARIANSIM: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION.. 313
GEORGE EDWARD MOORE (A.D. 1873—1958) 315
JEREMY BENTHAM (A.D. 1748–1832) 323
JAMES MILL (A.D. 1773—1836) 326
JOHN STUART MILL (A.D. 1806—1873) 327
ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY. 339
BERTRAND RUSSELL (A. D. 1872—1970) 348
LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN (A.D. 1889—1951) 359
J. L. AUSTIN (A. D. 1911—1960) 369
CONVENTIONALISM: An Overview of the Philosophy of Science. 375
PRAGMATISM… 380
WILLIAM JAMES (A. D. 1842—1910) 382
JOHN DEWEY (A. D. 1859—1952) 399
SIGMUND FREUD (1856—1939) 416
ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD (A. D. 1861—1947) 426
PROCESS THEOLOGY VS. TRADITIONAL THEISM ON TIMELESSNESS. 442
Charles Hartshorne (1897—2000) 449
Schubert Ogden (b. 1928) 452
Nelson Pike (1930-2010) 459
OPEN THEISM (FREE-WILL THEISM or Neo-Theism) 464
INTRODUCTION TO POST-MODERN AND DECONSTRUCTIONIST THINKERS. 471
PAUL-MICHEL FOUCAULT (A. D. 1926—1984) 475
JACQUES DERRIDA (A. D. 1930—2004) 480
JEAN-FRANÇOIS LYOTARD (A.D. 1924—1998) 490
RICHARD RORTY (A. D. 1931—2007) 493
POST-MODERNISM IN THE CHURCH.. 504
THE EMERGENT CHURCH: THEOLOGICAL POSTMODERNISM… 504
Bibliography. 524
GLOSSARY. 527

History of Western Philosophy – Volume I – Ancient and Medieval

A History of Western Philosophy, Vol. I: Ancient and Medieval
by Dr. Norman L. Geisler
2012

Available at Amazon here:

This is the first of a two-volume set on the history of philosophy from the Pre-Socratics to the Post-moderns. It offers comprehensive exposition of the greatest and most influential thinkers of the western world from a Christian perspective. This very unique set is the result of a life-time of research, teaching, and writing by Dr. Geisler, the founder and first president of the Evangelical Philosophical Society. Volume one covers all the major Western thinkers of ancient and medieval philosophy from Thales to Plotinus to Aquinas to Gerson.

Contents:

Introduction: the History of Philosophy 7
The Four Great Periods of Western Thought 8
The Origin of Western Philosophy 9

ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY 12
THALES (c. 640 – 546/5 B.C.) 12
ANAXIMANDER (c. 640 – 546 B.C.) 14
ANAXIMENES (c. 640546 B.C.) 17
PYTHAGORAS (6th cent. B.C.) 18
HERACLITUS (c. 540 – 475 B.C.) 22
XENOPHANES (c. 570 – 480 B.C.) 26
PARMENIDES (c. 515 – 450 B.C.) 28
ZENO (490 – 430 B.C.) 31
MELISSUS (5th Century B.C.) 34
EMPEDOCLES (c. 493 – 433 B.C.) 36
INTRODUCTION TO ATOMISM 38
ANAXAGORAS (c. 500 – 428 B.C.) 40
DIOGENES (of Apollonia) (c. 470 – 399 B.C.) 43
LEUCIPPUS (fl. c.450 B.C.) 44 DEMOCRITUS (c. 460 – 370 B.C) 46
INTRODUCTION TO THE SOPHISTS 48
PROTAGORAS (c.485 – 410 B.C.) 49
GORGIAS (c. 483 – 375 B.C.) 51
CRATYLUS (c. 428 – 348 B.C.) 53
SOCRATES (c. 470 – 399 B.C.) 54
PLATO (c. 428/7 – 348/7 B.C.) 59
ARISTOTLE (c. 384/383 – 322/321 B.C.) 73
EPICURUS (c. 341 – 270 B.C.) 90
INTRODUCTION TO THE STOICS 95
PYRRHO (c. 360 – 270 B.C.) 97
LUCRETIUS (c. 99 – 55 B.C.) 99
MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO (c. 106 – 43 B.C.) 101
PHILO (JUDAEUS) OF ALEXANDRIA (c. 20 B.C. – A.D. 40) 103
JESUS CHRIST (c. 4 B.C. – 33 a.d.) 108
EPICTETUS (c. A.D. 50138) 112
SEXTUS EMPIRICUS (c. A.D. 160210) 114

EARLY CHRISTIAN THINKERS (c. 2nd and 3rd cents. A.D.) 116
JUSTIN MARTYR (c. A.D. 100—165) 117
CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (c. A.D. 150—211/215) 119
TERTULLIAN (c. A.D. 155 or 160 — after 220) 127
GNOSTICISM (c. A.D. 2nd to 4th Centuries) 132
PLOTINUS (NEO-PLATONISM) (c. A. D. 205 – 270) 138

MEDIEVAL PHILSOPHY 150
SAINT AUGUSTINE (c. A.D. 354 – 430) 150
PROCLUS (c. A.D. 410 – 480) 160
BOETHIUS (c. A.D. 480 – 525) 165
DIONYSIUS [DENIS] THE PSEDUDO AREOPAGITE (fl. c. A.D. 500) 172
JOHN PHILOPONUS (c. A.D. 490 – 570) 176

INTRODUCTION TO MEDIEVAL CHRISTIANITY 181
MUHAMMAD (c. A.D. 570 – 632) 184
JOHN SCOTUS ERIGENA (c. A.D. 810 – 877) 185
INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY 194
AL KINDI (c. A.D. 801 – 873) 195
AL FARABI (C. A. D. 872 – 950) 200
AVICENNA (IBN SINA) (C. A.D. 980 – 1037) 203
THE RISE OF JEWISH PHILOSOPHY 213
AVICEBRON (SOLOMON IBN GABRIOL) (c. A.D. 1020 – 1070) 214
AL GHAZALI (c. A.D. 1058 – 1111) 216
ANSELM OF CANTERBURY (c. A.D. 1033 – 1109) 219
PETER ABELARD (c. A.D. 1079 – 1142) 230
AVERROES (c. A.D. 1126—1198) 238
MOSES MAIMONIDES (c. A.D. 1135-1204) 243
PETER LOMBARD (c. A.D. 1100 – 1160) 247
WILLIAM OF AUVERGNE (c. A.D. 1180/1190—1249) 249
ROBERT GROSSETESTE (c. A.D. 1175 – 1253) 254
ST. BONAVENTURE (c. A.D. 1221 – 1274) 257
ALBERT THE GREAT (c. 1200 – 1280 A.D.) 270
THOMAS AQUINAS (c. A.D. 1224/1225 – 1274) 278
ROGER BACON (c. AD 1220 – 1292) 301
JOHANNES (JOHN) DUNS SCOTUS (c. AD 1265/66 – 1308) 309
MEISTER (MASTER) (JOHN) ECKHART (c. AD 1260 – 1326) 316
WILLIAM OF OCKHAM (c. AD 1285-1349) 321
NICHOLAS OF CUSA (c. A.D. 1401-1464) 332
FRANCIS SUAREZ (c. A.D. 15481617) 338
JOHN GERSON (A.D. 13631492) 343

FROM THE MIDDLE AGES TO MODERNITY 345
SELECT BOOKS ON THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY 347

A Handbook on Worldviews

A Handbook on World Views: A Catalogue for World View Shoppers

2013

By Norman L. Geisler and William D. Watkins

Available as a Kindle e-book at Amazon here:

This book is an updated (third edition) version of the book formerly titled Worlds Apart: A Handbook on World Views; Second Edition, which is still available as a soft-cover printedbook from Wipf&Stock here: https://wipfandstock.com/worlds-apart.html

CONTENTS
PREFACE 5
INTRODUCTION – AN INVITATION TO OTHER WORLDS 6
CHAPTER 1: THEISM – A WORLD PLUS AN INFINITE GOD 15
CHAPTER 2: ATHEISM – A WORLD WITHOUT GOD 38
CHAPTER 3: PANTHEISM – A WORLD THAT IS GOD 66
CHAPTER 4: PANENTHEISM – A WORLD IN GOD 95
CHAPTER 5: DEISM – A WORLD ON ITS OWN MADE BY GOD 131
CHAPTER 6: FINITE GODISM – A WORLD WITH A FINITE GOD 166
CHAPTER 7: POLYTHEISM – A WORLD WITH MORE THAN ONE GOD 193
CONCLUSION: CHOOSING A WORLD VIEW 227
GLOSSARY 239
BIBLIOGRAPHY 243
APPENDIX A: ISLAM AS A WORLD VIEW 256