Category Archives: Bibliology

McGrew Review

Review of Michael Licona’s Why Are There Differences in the Gospels? by Lydia McGrew

Digital copies of this review are available for free in 8.5″x11″ PDF format at

Printed softcover copies may be ordered from Amazon here:

This booklet was published by the Global Journal of Classic Theology in 2019 and was printed with the help of Bastion Books soon after. It is a 42-page review by Dr. Lydia McGrew of Dr. Michael Licona’s book Why are There Differences in the Gospels? What We Can Learn from Ancient Biography (Oxford University Press: 2016).

This review would reappear and be expanded upon in Lydia’s 2020 book The Mirror or the Mask.

Beware of Philosophy

Beware of Philosophy: A Warning to Biblical Scholars

by Dr. Norman L. Geisler

Available as a free .PDF file here.

Beware of Philosophy began as the presidential address Dr. Geisler delivered to the biblical scholars at the 50th annual meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS) on November 19th, 1998.  This eBook edition remains essentially the same but was updated slightly by Dr. Geisler in 2012.

Dr. Geisler begins with this warning:

The exhortation of the apostle Paul to “beware of philosophy” (Col. 2:8) is as urgent today as it was in the first century, if not more so. And this is not only true for Christians who call themselves philosophers but for those who do not, especially for biblical exegetes. Although the context of Col. 2:8 probably has reference to a proto-gnostic type philosophy at Colossae that had a disastrous mix of legalism, asceticism, and mysticism with Christianity, the implications of Paul’s exhortation to “beware of philosophy” are appropriately applied to other alien systems of thought that have invaded Christianity down through the centuries since then.

But before one can beware of philosophy, theologians must first be aware of philosophy.  Dr. Geisler begins by explaining the sour theological fruit produced by the incursion of harmful philosophical roots.  He warns against Naturalism, Spinoza, Hume, Bultmann, Agnosticism, Evolutionism, Progressivism, Existentialism, Phenomenology, Conventionalism, Processism, Platonic Allegorism, Ockhamistic Nominalism, Aristotelianism, Anthropological Monism, and Historical Criticism.  He proceeds to offer helpful advice for the mind and for the soul–advice meant to help us avoid being influenced negatively by harmful philosophical trends and methods.  This makes it a “must read” for all biblical scholars and for advanced students of God’s word!

Thomas Aquinas: An Evangelical Appraisal

The first edition, titled Thomas Aquinas: An Evangelical Appraisal, was published in 1991 by Baker Book House (ISBN: 978-0801038440) and then republished in 2003 under the same title by Wipf & Stock Publishers (ISBN: 978-1592441549). The first edition is still available as a softcover book from Wipf&Stock here and as an e-book in the Logos system here.

Second Edition. Norm revised the book in 2012 and added two completely new chapters—one on evil and one on the origin, nature, and destiny of human beings. This edition is not available at this time. Bastion Books is working to republish it in 2022 after adding a few new appendices.




1: The Contemporary Relevance of Aquinas.
2: The Life of Aquinas.
3: An Overview of the Thought of Aquinas
4: The Bible
5: Faith and Reason
6: The First Principles of Knowledge
7: Reality
8: God’s Nature
9: God’s Existence
10: Human Nature
11: Religious Language
12: Evil
13: Law and Morality

End Notes
Select Bibliography


1: The Major Writings of Aquinas
2: A Chronology of Aquinas’s Life
3: God, Angels, and Humans
4: Christian History Interview with Norm Geisler about Thomas Aquinas
5: Does Thomism lead to Roman Catholicism?
6: Directions in Neo-Thomism

If you would like to review an advanced pre-view copy of the third edition of the book and provide a recommendation blurb for it, or if you have any constructive criticism of/for the book, please feel free to send it to the editor through our contact page.

Praise for the book

“This is ‘must reading’ for every thinking Christian. I am thrilled by this careful analysis of St. Thomas.”

R.C. Sproul, Emeritus Professor of Theology, Reformed Theological Seminary

“The book gives an understandable presentation of many of Aquinas’ major contributions and shows how they are relevant, at times even crucial, to contemporary discussion. In the process Geisler strikes a credible blow against the current unfounded prejudice towards S. Thomas in evangelical thought.”

Winfried Corduan,Professor Emeritus of Philosophy and Religion, Taylor University

“Dr. Geisler is a man I have known and admired for many years. It is indeed the rare man who can find in an apparent enemy an ally. But Geisler’s study of Thomas Aquinas is far more than an instance of the old adage fas est et ab hoste doceri (it is right to learn even from the foe). He enables evangelicals and Catholics to see the immense range of truths that unite us, not as some least common denominator, but truths that are at the heart of our Christian faith.”

Ralph McInerny, Professor of Philosophy, University of Notre Dame

“Dr. Geisler has hit a grand slam with Thomas Aquinas. This volume makes accessible the many Thomistic nuggets to the evangelical world. Whether you’re a theologian or lay person, this clear and understandable work offers crucial ideas for understanding the Bible, God, creation, reality, the relationship between faith and reason, and much more. This must-read book is an indispensable resource for any thinking Christian’s toolkit. Take and read!” 

Joseph M. Holden, President, Veritas International University

“Geisler makes a good case for his message that the writings of Aquinas can be of great value to today’s Protestant and Roman Catholic philosophers and theologians.”

Robert N. Campbell, Aquinas Scholar

“Paul tells us in Rom. 1:20 that the invisible attributes of God ‘are clearly seen through the things that are made.’ He echoes the Psalmist who tells us that ‘the heavens declare the glory of God’ (Ps. 19:1). No philosopher in history has done a better job of unpacking the philosophical richness of Paul’s and the Psalmist’s proclamations than Thomas Aquinas. Evangelicals who ignore Aquinas’s thinking here and in other areas are doing themselves a great disservice. There is no better place to begin appreciating his philosophy than Dr. Norman Geisler’s excellent book. It should be in the library of every thoughtful Christian.”

Richard G. Howe, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy and Apologetics, Southern Evangelical Seminary

“Thomas Aquinas is arguably the greatest mind Christendom has ever produced. Yet many Christians are unfamiliar with his life and extraordinary accomplishments. Norman Geisler has done a great service for evangelical Protestants by providing them with a general introduction to St. Thomas’s life and system of thought. Old Aquinas has indeed much wisdom to teach all branches of Christendom.”

Kenneth Samples, Senior Research Scholar, Reasons to Believe

“Some may be surprised that a well-known Christian leader, such as Norman Geisler, would propose greater evangelical appreciation of Thomas Aquinas.  But, in fact, reading Aquinas will enrich the evangelical Christian’s theology, philosophy, and apologetics. In this book, Geisler seeks to give a basic explanation of the untapped riches of Thomistic theology and philosophy to the evangelical and to whoever is open to learning it. For this reason, I recommend this book as a beginner’s guide to those who are interested in learning from Aquinas but whose hearts falter at the prospect of having to learn the medieval scholastic literary method.” 

Miguel Angel Endara, Professor of Philosophy and Apologetics, Veritas International University

“Should Old Aquinas Be Forgot? is an astute introduction to the philosophical thought of Aquinas for evangelical thinkers.  The list of topics are extensive: faith and reason, religious language, Aquinas on the Bible, reasoning for God’s existence and nature, natural law, the human person.  Its abundant citations acquaint the reader with Aquinas himself and open the door to deeper dimensions of his metaphysical thought.”

John F. X. Knasas, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the Center for Thomistic Studies at the University of St. Thomas in Houston

“Evangelicals must stop thinking of the medieval period as the long dark time between Augustine and Luther. Geisler’s critical but charitable engagement with Aquinas’ writings provides a helpful introduction to overturning some common misunderstandings about Thomas’ philosophy and offers an invitation to further study in the period.”

John R. Gilhooly, Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Theology and Director of the Honors Program, Cedarville University

“Should old Aquinas be forgot? Absolutely not. Dr. Geisler presents the importance and relevance of Aquinas with his rare ability to get quickly and succinctly at the heart of Aquinas’ major contributions. I highly recommend this book!”

Thomas W. Baker, Associate Professor of Theology and Apologetics, Veritas International University

“It is with great enthusiasm that I commend Dr. Norm Geisler’s evangelical compendium on the theological genius of Saint Thomas Aquinas. In this book, Dr. Geisler is both conductor and instrumentalist as he directs the concerto on the veritas Dei composed by the humble Dominican Friar. To all who have undergone their own intellectual born-again experience and to all who have yet to discover God’s philosophy: Tolle Lege! (“Take up and read!”) Then you will discover why it is the highest compliment to be called a Thomist.”

Kenny Rhodes, Visiting Scholar, Reasons to Believe

“In the 16th through 19th centuries, many Protestant theologians maintained a critical appreciation of the thought of Thomas Aquinas. Some probably qualify as Reformed Thomists. However, from the early 1800s to the mid-1900s, there was a major shift in Protestant reception of Thomistic thought. Aquinas was either ignored or attacked. In the mid-1900s, however, things began to change. Some Protestant scholars began, once again, interacting positively with Aquinas. In 1957, Norman Geisler argued in an article that there were some very good reasons for a renewed Protestant consideration of the thought of Thomas Aquinas, and, more importantly, Protestants could actually embrace the thought of Aquinas on a number of key issues. This is not a novel claim, but, more accurately, a return to the early Reformed approach to the thought of Aquinas. Protestant interest in the work of Aquinas has since continued to grow, creating a debate concerning how much of Aquinas’s thought Protestants can use without compromising the truths of Scripture that were salvaged during the Reform. This revised version of his 1991 book, which includes helpful additions concerning the noetic effects of sin, pure act and divine simplicity, an entirely new chapter on Aquinas’s approach to human nature, a reworking of his chapter on evil, and some new appendices, is a helpful introduction to the thought of Thomas Aquinas, and deserves a wide readership.”

David Haines, Associate Professor of Philosophy and Religion, Veritas International University

Evidence of an Early New Testament Canon

Evidence of an Early New Testament Canon
by Norman Geisler and Shawn Nelson

This is a 64-page book is available as a Kindle e-book at Amazon here:

Very few laypeople know the story of how the church received the New Testament Scriptures. Christians looking into this important topic for the first time are quickly confronted with alarming claims from critical scholars. Some offer accusations that most New Testament books were written late, forged under the apostle’s names, went through many revisions and were then thrust upon the church through a questionable process four centuries after Christ. This view is not consistent with the church’s long-held belief in inspiration, infallibility and inerrancy.
In contrast this short, easy-to-read book attempts to show that an early New Testament canon is consistent with a high view of Scripture. Evidence is given showing that the formation of the canon would have been a perfectly natural occurrence in the early church. This evidence is based on the fact that Jesus taught the coming of further revelation after his ascension through the apostles he commissioned. These apostles were confirmed through miracles, were aware of their God-given authority, and imposed their writings on the church. These writings were then received by men of God who recognized their divine origin (inspiration). There is finally an overview of events leading up to the formal ratification of the canon in the fourth century.
It is hoped that laypeople will recognize that the central core of the New Testament was already well established after the books were written. And by this, Christians can be all the more confident that the New Testament Scriptures before them today is inspired, infallible and without error.

Introduction. 4
Definition of Canon. 5
Setting The Stage. 7
Jesus Promised New Revelation. 14
Role of Apostolic Authority. 17
These Apostles Were The Source Of The Writings. 21
The Apostles Imposed Their Authoritative Writings Upon The Church. 29
The Church Received These Writings As Inspired Scripture 34
Towards Final Recognition Of A Closed Canon. 46
Conclusion. 57
Table 1. The New Testament Canon During The First Four Centuries.59
Table 2. Early Citations of the New Testament by The Church Fathers.60
Table 3. Canon Comparison Chart.61

Preserving Orthodoxy

Preserving Orthodoxy: Maintaining Continuity with the Historic Christian Faith on Scripture
by Dr. Norman L. Geisler

This book is available as a printed softcover book and as a kindle e-book only at Amazon: 

Table of Contents
1 Three Kinds of Fundamentals / 1
2 Preserving Orthodoxy on Inerrancy Before Modern Times / 4
3 Preserving Orthodoxy in The Evangelical Theological Society / 16
4 The Robert Gundry Issue / 18
5 The Clark Pinnock Issue / 26
6 The Mike Licona Issue / 43
7 How Orthodoxy Can Be Lost / 63
8 How to Preserve Orthodoxy / 67
Appendix: Why I Resigned from The Evangelical Theological Society / 71
Bibliography / 75